GENDER

GENDER

KEY TRENDS

 

• As per the NSS 71st round, among rural females aged 5-29 years, the main reasons for dropping out/ discontinuance were: engagement in domestic activities, not interested in education, financial constraints and marriage. Among rural males aged 5-29 years, the main reasons for dropping out/ discontinuance were: engagement in economic activities, not interested in education and financial constraints %%

• Infant Mortality Rate in India for females has declined from 64 in 2003 to 42 in 2013, while for males it has declined from 57 to 39 during the same span, as per the Sample Registration System %% 

 

• Based on a survey by Catalyst Inc. Knowledge Center during March 2014, the ILO report informs that India is among 13 countries, which has less than 5 percent of company board seats occupied by women @$

• Based on a study from Spencer Stuart titled 'India Board Index 2012, Current board trends and practices in the BSE-100', the present ILO report - 'Women in Business and Management' informs that nearly 4.0 percent of CEOs in Indian public listed companies during 2012 were women @$ 

 

• In 2014, women occupied only 7 out of 45 Ministerial positions in the Central Council of Ministers, which is a little more than 15%, against around 10% women participation in 2004. 62 females have been elected in 2014 Elections constituting more than 11% share in the Lower House. In the states, women share is only 8% in assemblies and only 4% in State Councils. In the Panchayat setup, overall 46.7% women are present; with maximum 58.6% in Jharkhand and minimum 32.3% in Goa as on 1st March, 2013 $*
 
• Indian laws that ban child marriage, pre-natal sex selection tests and dowries are poorly implemented. There are laws existing in India that exclude daughters and widows from inheriting land. There are some Indian laws that promote a preference for sons over daughters $$

• The sex ratio (number of females per 1000 males) at the national level is 943 in 2011. Rural sex ratio is 949 and the urban is 929. Among the States, Kerala at 1084 has the highest sex ratio followed by Puducherry at 1037. Daman and Diu has the lowest sex ratio of 618 in the country $

• Larger and more representative cohort studies from Africa and India show an association between experience of intimate partner violence and biologically confirmed incident HIV/ other STIs ((sexually transmitted infection) π

• Brides who are tied in a knot in cross-region marriages in Haryana and Rajasthan are subject to heightened surveillance, which varies from total confinement to restriction of their movement within the village. The degree to which this is enforced depends on the a) mode through which the bride has been sourced, i.e., whether she is trafficked, coerced or married with her parent’s approval; b) duration of the marriage; c) amount invested by the family in the marriage; and d) whether she has children or not from this marriage Ω

• Maternal mortality ratio (i.e. the number of deaths to women per 100,000 live births which result from conditions related to pregnancy, delivery, the postpartum period, and related complications) in India stood at 200 in 2010 as compared to 37 in China

• 57 percent of adolescent Indian boys (15-19 years) justified wife-beating by husband as compared to 53 percent female adolescents during 2002-2010 α

• A survey of 405 Indian women who were either separated or divorced or deserted which was done by a team of researchers, women’s rights activists and lawyers, for the Economic Research Foundation of India between October 2008 and September 2009 shows that despite maintenance provisions most women are financially dependent on their natal families and 63% live with natal families, usually parents. The miserable financial status of separated and divorced women is evident from the fact that even after separation 41.5% had no income and 27.4% earned less than Rs. 2000 per month *

• Among the crimes committed against women in 2008, torture shares the highest percentage (42%), followed by molestation (21%). 11.0% cases are that of rape, 11.7% of kidnapping and abduction, and 1.0% of Immoral Trafficking. It is also significant to note that 6.0% cases are of sexual harassment and 4.1% of Dowry deaths **

• A fifth of married women in India are not involved in spending decisions, even about their own incomes. Reforms to inheritance laws in India resulted in delays in marriage for girls, more education (increasing the number of years of schooling by an average of 11–25 percent), and lower dowry payments @

• In 11 of 13 countries with data—including India, Romania, Sierra Leone, Sweden, and the United States—women make up less than 20 percent of the police force @

• Under-five mortality rate for girls in India in 2008 was 73 per 1,000 live births, compared to 65 for boys. In China, the rate for girls was 24, compared to 18 for boys #
 
%% Women and Men in India 2015, which has been produced by the Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation (please click chapter 1, chapter 2, chapter 3, chapter 4, chapter 5, chapter 6 and chapter 7
 
@$ Women in Business and Management: Gaining Momentum (published in January2015), ILO (Please click here to access)
 
$* Women and Men in India 2014, 16th Issue prepared by the Central Statistics Office, Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation (Please click here to download Foreword & Preface ; Index ; Highlights ; Constitutional and Legal Rights ; Chapter 1 ; Chapter 2 ; Chapter 3 ; Chapter 4 ; Chapter 5 ; Chapter 6 ; Chapter 7 ; and Explanatory Notes )
 
$$ "The Law and Son Preference in India: A Reality Check" by Advocate Kirti Singh, United Nations, November, 2013 (please click here to download)

$ Women and Men in India 2013, 15th Issue, Central Statistics Office, Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation (please click to download part 1 and part 2 of the report)

π Global and Regional Estimates of Violence against Women: Prevalence and Health Effects of Intimate Partner Violence and Non-partner Sexual Violence (2013), prepared by WHO, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine and South African Medical Research Council,
http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/85239/1/978924156
4625_eng.pdf


*$ Tied in a Knot: Cross-region Marriages in Haryana and Raja
sthan-Implications for Gender Rights and Gender Relations
written by Reena Kukreja and Paritosh Kumar (2013) and produced by The Royal Norwegian Embassy

∂ The State of World Population 2012:  By Choice, Not by Chance-Family Planning, Human Rights and Development, UNFPA,

α Progress for Children: A Report Card on Adolescents (UNICEF), Number 10, April, 2012, http://www.unicef.org/media/files/PFC2012_A_report_card_on
_adolescents.pdf


* The Economic Rights & Entitlements of Separated and Divorced Women India (2012),

** Women and Men in India 2011, 13th issue, MoSPI,

@ World Development Report 2012-Gender Equality and Development, which has been brought out by the World Bank,

# Progress of the World's Women: In Pursuit of Justice 2011-12, UN-Women
 


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