GENDER

GENDER


According to the report entitled: Women and Men in India 2015, which has been produced by the Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation (please click chapter 1, chapter 2, chapter 3, chapter 4, chapter 5, chapter 6 and chapter 7):

Population

• Sex Ratio (for all ages) in urban areas stood at 929 while in rural areas the same stood at 949 during 2011. Sex ratio means the number of females per 1000 males.

• Sex Ratio in India (for all ages) has declined from 946 in 1951 to 943 in 2011.

• For the age-group 0-6 years, sex ratio has declined from 934 in 2001 to 918 in 2011.

• Sex Ratio at Birth has declined from 903 in 2007 to 898 in 2013, as per Civil Registration System.

• During 2011, Sex Ratio among Hindus is 939, Muslims is 951, Christians is 1023, Sikhs is 903, Buddhists is 965 and Jains is 954.

• Sex Ratio among adolescent (10-19 years) is 898 and youth (15-24 years) is 908.

• The number of female headed households per 1000 households in rural areas has increased from 97 during 1993-94 to 115 during 2011-12, while in urban areas it has increased from 106 to 124 during the same time span.

• Out of the total female population, 42.7 percent are never married, 49 percent are married and 8.3 percent are Widowed/ Divorced/ Separated. Out of the total male population, 52.5 percent are never married, 45.2 percent are married and 2.3 percent are Widowed/ Divorced/ Separated.

• As per the Sample Registration System, women's mean age at marriage has risen from 20.7 years in 2009 to 21.3 years in 2013.

Health

• General Fertility Rate has reduced from 83.9 in 2010 to 78.5 in 2013. General fertility rate is defined as number of live births per thousand women in the age group (15-49 years) in a given year.

• Total Fertility Rate has reduced from 2.5 in 2010 to 2.3 in 2013. Total fertility rate is defined as the average number of children that would be born to a woman if she experiences the current fertility pattern throughout her reproductive span (15-49 years).

• As the educational level of the mother goes up, the Total Fertility Rate goes down. For example, the TFR among illiterate mother is 3.1 and for mother who are Graduate and above is 1.7 during 2013.

• In 2013, the percentage share of births that received medical attention during delivery in 'Government hospitals' was 50 percent, in 'Private hospitals' was 24.4 percent, by 'qualified professionals' was 12.7 percent and by 'Untrained functionary and others' was 12.9 percent.

• Infant Mortality Rate in India has declined from 47 per 1000 live births in 2010 to 40 per 1000 live births in 2013. IMR is defined as the number of deaths under one year of age per 1000 live births.

• Infant Mortality Rate in India for females has declined from 64 in 2003 to 42 in 2013, while for males it has declined from 57 to 39 during the same span, as per the Sample Registration System.

• Life Expectancy at birth for females has improved from 60.4 in 1990-94 to 69.3 in 2009-13. Life Expectancy at birth for males has improved from 59.4 in 1990-94 to 65.8 in 2009-13, as per the Sample Registration System.

• Maternal Mortality Ratio in India has declined from 301 during 2001-03 to 167 during 2011-13, as per the Office of the Registrar General, India. Maternal mortality ratio (MMR) is the number of maternal deaths during a given time period per 100000 live births during the same time period.

Literacy and Education

• In rural areas, female literacy rate stood at 58.75 percent against 78.57 percent among males during 2011. In urban areas, female literacy rate stood at 79.92 percent against 89.67 percent among males. At the national level, female literacy rate was 65.46 percent while male literacy rate was 82.14 percent.   

• In rural areas, literacy rate among scheduled caste females stood at 52.6 percent against 72.6 percent among SC males during 2011. In urban areas, literacy rate among SC females stood at 68.6 percent against 83.3 percent among SC males during 2011. At the national level, literacy rate among SC females stood at 56.5 percent against 75.2 percent among SC males during 2011.  

• In rural areas, literacy rate among scheduled tribe females stood at 46.9 percent against 66.8 percent among ST males during 2011. In urban areas, literacy rate among ST females stood at 70.3 percent against 83.2 percent among ST males during 2011. At the national level, literacy rate among ST females stood at 49.35 percent against 68.53 percent among ST males during 2011.  

• At the national level, the gender gap in male-female literacy rate has reduced from 24.8 in 1991 to 21.6 in 2001 and further to 16.7 in 2011.

• The Gender Parity Index in adult literacy rate (age 15 years and above) has improved from 32 percent in 1961 to 75 percent in 2011. Gender Parity Index is defined as the ratio of female to male literacy rate, expressed in percentage.

• Gross Enrolment Ratio for females in Primary Classes I-V (6-10 years) has improved from 86.9 percent in 2001-02 to 100.6 percent in 2013-14 while for males it has declined from 105.3 percent in 2001-02 to 98.1 percent in 2013-14. Gross Enrolment Ratio is the ratio of total enrolment in a particular class to the total population of all persons who belong to the age-group that should ideally be in that class, expressed in percentage. 

• Gross Enrolment Ratio for females in Middle Classes VI-VIII (11-13 Years) has improved from 52.09 percent in 2001-02 to 90.3 percent in 2013-14 while for males it has increased from 67.8 percent in 2001-02 to 84.9 percent in 2013-14.

• Gross Enrolment Ratio for females in Higher Secondary Classes IX-XII (14-18 Years) has improved from 27.7 percent in 2001-02 to 96.9 percent in 2013-14 while for males it has increased from 38.2 percent in 2001-02 to 93.3 percent in 2013-14.

• The number of girls per 100 boys enrolled in school for primary classes (I-V) has improved from 78 in 2000-01 to 93 in 2014-15. The sex ratio of girls per 100 boys enrolled in school for middle classes (VI-VIII) has increased from 69 in 2000-01 to 95 in 2014-15.  The sex ratio of girls per 100 boys enrolled in school for secondary classes (IX-X) has increased from 63 in 2000-01 to 90 in 2014-15.

• Drop-out rate for females in Classes I-X has fallen from 71.5 percent in 2000-01 to 46.7 percent in 2013-14 while for males it has declined from 66.4 percent in 2000-01 to 48.1 percent in 2013-14.

• The average expenditure per student pursuing general education at all levels (excluding graduation and post-graduation & above) has been higher for male students as compared to female students in rural areas, as per the 71st round of National Sample Survey conducted in 2014.

• As per the 71st round of NSS conducted in 2014, among general education, most girl students are enrolled in Humanities (54.3 percent), followed by Science (27.8 percent) and then Commerce (18 percent). However, most boy students too are enrolled in Humanities (45.7 percent), followed by Science (34.5 percent) and then Commerce (19.8 percent).

• The number of females per 100 males in Arts stream in university has increased from 81.4 in 2000-01 to 86 in 2009-10; in Science stream it has risen from 61.4 to 72.7 during the same time span; in Commerce it went up from 55.3 to 67.3; in Engineering and Technical Education it has increased from 28.7 to 40.3; and in Medicine it has gone up from 68.2 in 2000-01 to 90.9 in 2009-10. 

• The number of female teachers per 100 male teachers has increased from 55 in 2000-01 to 88 in 2013-14 in primary schools; from 62 to 83 during the same time span in middle schools and from 54 to 74 in secondary/ intermediate schools.

• As per the NSS 71st round, among rural females aged 5-29 years, the main reasons for dropping out/ discontinuance were: engagement in domestic activities, not interested in education, financial constraints and marriage. Among rural males aged 5-29 years, the main reasons for dropping out/ discontinuance were: engagement in economic activities, not interested in education and financial constraints.  

• As per the NSS 71st round, among urban females aged 5-29 years, the main reasons for dropping out/ discontinuance were: engagement in domestic activities, marriage, financial constraints, not interested in education and attained education upto to the desired level. Among urban males aged 5-29 years, the main reasons for dropping out/ discontinuance were: engagement in economic activities, financial constraints and not interested in education. 

Participation in Economy

• The Female Workforce Participation Rate of women was 25.51 while that of men was 53.26 during 2011. Workforce participation rate is defined as the proportion of workers in the population.

• The Female Workforce Participation Rate in rural areas was 30.0 percent while that in urban areas was 15.4 percent during 2011.

• The National Sample Survey (68th Round) results indicate that the worker to population ratio for females in rural areas was 24.8 in 2011-12 and 54.3 for males (based on usual status approach). In urban areas, the ratio was 14.7 for females and 54.6 for males.

• The Labour Force Participation Rate in rural areas was 25.3 percent for females and 55.3 percent for males during the 68th round of NSS (based on usual status approach and includes principal status and subsidiary status persons of all ages). In 2011-12, the Labour Force Participation Rate in urban areas was 15.5 percent for females and 56.3 percent for males. Labour Force Participation Rate is defined as the proportion of persons/person-days in the labour force to the total person/person-days.

• Unemployment rate in rural areas for females was 2.9 percent and males was 2.1 percent (usual principal status of individuals of all ages). Unemployment rate in urban areas for females was 6.6 percent and males was 3.2 percent.

• The unemployment rate is 4.9 percent for females as compared to 2.9 percent for males aged 15 years and above, as per the 4th Employment-Unemployment Survey conducted in 2013-14 (based on Usual Principal & Subsidiary Status Approach).

• The percentage share of women who have registered for jobs (out of total live register) in the employment exchanges has increased from 26 percent in 2003 to 34.9 percent in 2012.

• As on March, 2014, roughly 20 percent of officers in Scheduled Commercial Banks were women as compared to 29 percent being employed as clerks and 12 percent being employed as subordinates. Nearly, 22 percent of those employed in Scheduled Commercial Banks were women.

• As on March, 2014, nearly 27.46 percent of accounts in Scheduled Commercial Banks belonged to women. Deposits in these accounts comprised 16.05 percent of total deposited amount. 

• As per the 68th round of NSS, for casual labourers aged 15-59 years, the average national daily wage earned by females was Rs. 103.28 while that earned by males was Rs. 149.32 in works other than 'public work' in rural areas. The average national daily wage earned by females was Rs. 110.62 while that earned by males was Rs. 127.39 in public works other than MGNREGA (in rural areas). The average national daily wage earned by females was Rs. 112.46 while that earned by males was Rs. 101.97 in MGNREGA works. The average national daily wage earned by females was Rs. 182.04 while that earned by males was Rs. 110.62 in works other than 'public works' (in urban areas).

• The average Wage/Salary received per day by Regular Wage/Salaried Employees was Rs. 201.56 for females and 322.28 for males in rural areas, as per the NSS 68th round. The average Wage/Salary received per day by Regular Wage/Salaried Employees was Rs. 366.15 for females and 469.87 for males in urban areas.

Participation in Decision Making

• In 2015, 8 out of 45 women occupied Ministerial positions in the Central Council of Ministers, more than 17 percent against around 10 percent women participation in 2004. Altogether 62 females were elected in 2014 Parliamentary Elections, constituting more than 11 percent share in the Lower House.

• The percentage of female electors participating in elections has improved from 46.6 percent during the Third General Election to 65.6 percent during the Sixteenth General Election. The percentage of male electors participating in Elections has improved from 62 percent during the Third General Election to 67.1 percent during the Sixteenth General Election. 

• Between the Second and the Fifteenth General Elections, female candidates exceeded males in terms of chances of winning (which is equal to ratio of total elected to total number contesting).

• The overall participation of women in state assemblies is 9 percent and in councils is 6 percent.

• As on 1 October 2015, the percentage of women judges in High Courts and Supreme Court of India stood at 11 percent.

• Among the all-India and Central Group-A Services, 30 percent females were in Indian Economic Service (in 2014), 28 percent in Indian Forest Service (in 2010), 24 percent in Indian Audit & Accounts Service (in 2012), 22 percent in both Indian Information Service (in 2013) and Indian Postal Service (in 2014), 19 percent in Indian Foreign Service (in 2014), 15 percent in Indian Statistical Service (in 2012), 14 percent in Indian Administrative Service (in 2012), and only 12 percent in Indian Trade Service (in 2014).

Social Obstacles in Women's Empowerment

• The percentage share of crime committed against Indian women (of all crimes) was 2 percent in 2000, 2 percent in 2005, 3 percent in 2010, 4 percent in 2011, 4 percent in 2012, 5 percent in 2013 and 5 percent in 2014.

• Out of the total cases of reported crimes against women in 2014, 36 percent cases were related to 'Cruelty by Husband and Relatives' (Sec.498-A IPC), 24 percent cases related to 'Assault on women with intent to outrage her modesty' (Sec.354 IPC), 17 percent cases related to 'Kidnapping & Abduction' (Sec.363 to 373 IPC), and 11 percent cases were related to 'Rape' (Sec. 376 IPC).

• Nearly 69 percent of total cases for investigation (related to crime committed against women) got disposed in 2014.

• Out of the total number of cases (related to crime committed against women) for trial, in only 9 percent cases there was conviction during 2014.

• Out of the total number cases related to crime against women during 2014, most were committed in West Bengal and Uttar Pradesh (both 11 percent).

• Most rape victims in 2014 came from the states of Madhya Pradesh (13 percent), followed by Rajasthan (10 percent), Uttar Pradesh (9 percent) and Maharashtra (9 percent).

• Most rape case victims (44 percent) were in the age-group of 18-30 years whereas 1 percent of all rape victims were under 6 years of age.

International Gender Perspective of Development Indicators

• Among the SAARC nations, sex ratio (no. of women per 100 men for all ages) stood at 93 in India as compared to 107 in Nepal, 105 in Sri Lanka, 99 in Maldives, 98 in Bangladesh, 97 in Afghanistan, and 95 in Pakistan. 

• Among SAARC nations, life expectancy at birth for women stood at 68 years in India as compared to 70 years in Nepal, 78 years in Sri Lanka, 79 years in Maldives, 72 years in Bangladesh, 62 years in Afghanistan, and 67 years in Pakistan. Life expectancy at birth for men stood at 65 years in India as compared to 67 years in Nepal, 72 years in Sri Lanka, 77 years in Maldives, 70 years in Bangladesh, 61 years in Afghanistan, and 65 years in Pakistan. Life expectancy at birth is an estimated number of years to be lived by a newborn, based on current age-specific mortality rates. 

• Among SAARC nations, mean age at marriage for women stood at 20 years in India (in 2006) as compared to 20 years in Nepal (in 2011), 24 years in Sri Lanka (in 2007), 22 years in Maldives (in 2009), 19 years in Bangladesh (in 2011), 22 years in Afghanistan (in 2010), and 23 years in Pakistan (in 2007).

• Among SAARC nations, the percentage of population aged 15-19 ever-married women stood at 28 percent in India (in 2006) as compared to 29 percent in Nepal (in 2011), 9 percent in Sri Lanka (in 2007), 6 percent in Maldives (in 2009), 46 percent in Bangladesh (in 2011), 17 percent in Afghanistan (in 2010), and 11 percent in Pakistan (in 2007).

• Among SAARC nations, the total fertility rate stood at 2.5 in India as compared to 2.3 in Nepal, 2.1 in Sri Lanka, 2.2 in Maldives, 2.2 in Bangladesh, 5.1 in Afghanistan, and 3.7 in Pakistan during the period 2010-2015. The total fertility rate is the number of children a woman would bear if her child-bearing follows the current fertility patterns and she lives through her entire child-bearing years.

• Among SAARC nations, the Infant Mortality Rate stood at 43.8 in India as compared to 33.6 in Nepal, 8.3 in Sri Lanka, 9 in Maldives, 33.1 in Bangladesh, 71 in Afghanistan, and 69.3 in Pakistan during the period 2010-2015. Infant mortality rate is the total number of infants dying before reaching the age of one year per 1,000 live births in a given year.

• Among SAARC nations, the length of maternity leave stood at 12 weeks in India as compared to 52 days in Nepal, 12 weeks in Sri Lanka, 16 weeks in Bangladesh, 90 days in Afghanistan, and 12 weeks in Pakistan.

 


Rural Experts

Related Articles

 

Write Comments

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

*

Video Archives

Archives

share on Facebook
Twitter
RSS
Feedback
Read Later