GENDER

GENDER

 

The key findings of the report entitled Gender Pay Gap in the Formal Sector: 2006-2013 -WageIndicator Data Report (Preliminary Evidences from Paycheck India Data) can be accessed from here. Please click here to download the report.


According to the report entitled: Women and Men in India 2013, 15th Issue, Central Statistics Office, Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation (please click to download part 1 and part 2 of the report):

Population and Vital Statistics

• The sex ratio (number of females per 1000 males) at the national level is 943. Rural sex ratio is 949 and the urban is 929. Among the States, Kerala at 1084 has the highest sex ratio followed by Puducherry at 1037. Daman and Diu has the lowest sex ratio of 618 in the country.

• The mean age at effective marriage for females stood at 21.2 years in 2011. Among the major States, the highest mean age at effective marriage was 22.6 years for Kerala and the lowest was 20.3 years for West Bengal.

• 60.8% of the rural female migrants migrated due to marriage followed by 29.4% due to movement of parents/earning member in 2007-08. A high 55.7% of the male migrants migrated due to employment reasons followed by 25.2% due to movement of parents/earning member in the same period.

Health and Well-Being

• The female Infant Mortality Rate (IMR) was 46 compared with the male IMR of 43 and the overall IMR of 44 in 2011. Among the major States, the highest overall IMR of 59 was observed in Madhya Pradesh and the lowest of 12 in Kerala in 2011.

• As per the Annual Health Survey 2010-11, the Underfive Mortality Rate was the highest in Madhya Pradesh (89) followed by Odisha (82) and Rajasthan (79) among the 9 Empowered Action Group States of Assam, Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, Madhya Pradesh, Odisha, Rajasthan, Uttarakahnd and Uttar Pradesh.

• The Maternal Mortality Ratio was 212 during 2007-09. Among the States, it was highest in Assam (390) followed by Uttar Pradesh (359) and Rajasthan (318).

• 47.0% of the deliveries took place at a health facility in 2007-08. Share of women who received ante natal care was 76.9% during this period.

• During 2012-13, the pattern of acceptance of different family planning methods in India was as follows: vasectomy – 0.4%, tubectomy – 14.8%, IUD insertion – 17.9%, equivalent conventional contraceptive users – 46.2% and equivalent oral pills users – 20.7%.

Participation in Economy

• As per Census 2011, the workforce participation rate for females at the national level stands at 25.51% compared with 53.26% for males. In the rural sector, females have a workforce participation rate of 30.02% compared with 53.03% for males. In the urban sector, it is 15.44% for females and 53.76% for males.

• As per Census 2011, 41.1% of female main and marginal workers are agricultural labourers, 24.0% are cultivators, 5.7% are household industry workers and 29.2% are engaged in other works.

• As per National Sample Survey (68th Round), the worker population ratio for females in rural sector was 24.8 in 2011-12 while that for males was 54.3. In Urban sector, it was 14.7 for females and 54.6 for males. Among the States/UTs, worker population ratio for females in the rural sector was the highest in Himachal Pradesh at 52.4% and in the urban sector, it was the highest in Sikkim at 27.3%.

• In the rural sector, 59.3% females were self-employed, 5.6% females had regular wage/salaried employment and 35.1% females were casual labours compared with 54.5%, 10.0% and 35.5% males in the same categories respectively in 2011-12.

• A total of 20.5% women were employed in the organized sector in 2011 with 18.1% working in the public sector and 24.3% in the private.

• The labour force participation rate for women across all age-groups was 25.3 in rural sector and 15.5 in urban sector compared with 55.3 and 56.3 for men in the rural and urban sectors respectively in 2011-12 (NSS 68th Round).

• The unemployment rate for women of all ages was at par with men at 1.7 in the rural areas in 2011-12. It was 5.2 for women and 3.0 for men in urban areas during the same period.

• The share of women in the person days employed through MGNREGA stood at 51.0% in 2012-13 (all districts with rural areas).

• In 2012-13, the share of women swarojgaris in the total swarojgaris assisted under the Swarnjayanti Gram Swarojgaar Yojna (SGSY) stood at 81.4%.

• In 2011-12, the average wage/salary received by regular wage/salaried employees of age 15-59 years was Rs. 201.56 per day for females compared with Rs. 322.28 per day for males in rural areas. For urban areas, it was Rs. 366.15 and Rs. 469.87 per day for females and males respectively.

Literacy and Education

• As per Census 2011, 73.0% of the population is literate comprising 64.6% females and 80.9% males. The incremental increase over Census 2001 of 10.5% for females is higher than 5.0% for males.

• Among the States/UTs, the female literacy rate is the highest in Kerala at 92.1% followed by Mizoram at 89.3%. The highest male literacy rate is also observed in Kerala at 96.1% followed by Lakshdweep at 95.6% as per Census 2011.

• The Gross Enrolment Ratio (GER) for females at the primary level stood at 116.7 compared with 115.4 for males in 2010-11. At the Middle Classes level, the GER for females was 83.1 while that for males was 87.7.

Participation in Decision-making

• In 2013, women occupied only 12 out of 78 Ministerial positions in the Central Council of Ministers. There were 2 women judges out of 26 judges in the Supreme Court and there were only 52 women judges out of 614 judges in different High Courts

• There were 342.2 million female electors in the Fifteenth General Elections in 2009 out of which 55.8% exercised their voting rights. There were 374.7 million male electors and 60.3% exercised their voting rights.

• In the Fifteenth General Elections, 2009, 556 female candidates contested the elections and 59 got elected giving them a winning percentage of 10.6. The winning percentage for male candidates stood at 6.4 with 7514 candidates contesting and 484 getting elected.

 


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