Key Facts

Key Facts

Output and Growth

 
• As per the advance estimates released by the Central Statistics Office, the growth rate of GDP at constant market prices for the year 2016-17 is placed at 7.1 per cent, as against 7.6 per cent in 2015-16. This estimate is based mainly on information for the first seven to eight months of the financial year. Government final consumption expenditure is the major driver of GDP growth in the current year *

• The Gross Capital Formation (GCF) in Indian agriculture as a proportion of total GCF showed a decline from 8.6 percent in 2011-2012 to 7.4 percent in 2013-14 at 2011-12 prices @@

• As per the revised estimates released by CSO, the percentage share of GCF in agriculture and allied sector in the Gross Value Added (GDP) from agriculture has also shown a decline from 18.3 percent in 2011-12 to 15.8 percent in 2014-15 @@

• As the ratio of GCF to GDP from agriculture reflects the investment rate in agriculture, the declining trend needs to be arrested and reversed since growth in agriculture sector is an imperative, given the significance of the sector in employment, income and inclusive growth @@

• The share of the public sector in GCF has declined from above 20 percent during 2004-05 to 16.8 percent by 2013-14. Correspondingly, the share of the private sector increased from 78 percent in 2004-05 to 83 percent by 2013-14 @@
 
• Agriculture sector is estimated to grow at 4.1 percent in 2016-17 as opposed to 1.2 percent in 2015-16; the higher growth in agriculture sector is not surprising as the monsoon rains were much better in the current year than the previous two years *

• During 2016-17, area sown upto 14th October, 2016 under all kharif crops taken together was 1075.7 lakh hectares which was 3.5 percent higher compared to 1039.7 lakh hectares in the corresponding period of 2015-16. Arhar registered the maximum percentage increase in acreage during the Kharif season 2016-17 compared to the previous year *

• The rabi crops’ sowing is in progress. The area coverage under rabi crops (total area) as on 13th January 2017 for 2016-17 at 616.21 lakh hectares is 5.9 percent higher than that in the corresponding week of last year. The area coverage under wheat as on 13th January 2017 is 7.1 percent higher than that in the corresponding week of last year. The area coverage under gram as on 13th January 2017 is 10.6 percent higher than that in the corresponding week of last year *
 
• Growth in the agriculture sector in 2015-16 has continued to be lower than the average of last decade, mainly on account of it being the second successive year of lower than-normal-monsoon rains @@

• The farm sector has experienced two years of low growth on account of two consecutive years of deficient south-west monsoon (June-September) rainfall, the only fourth such occurrence during the last 115 years (source: National Council of Applied Economic Research) @@

• The post monsoon (October-December) rains during 2015-16 also turned out to be below normal @@

• The growth rates in agriculture have been fluctuating at 1.5 percent in 2012-13, 4.2 percent in 2013-14, (-)0.2 percent in 2014-15 and a likely growth of 1.1 percent in 2015-16 (as per 1st Advance Estimate). The uncertainties in growth in agriculture are explained by the fact that 60 percent of agriculture in India is rainfall dependent and there have been two consecutive years of less then normal rainfall in 2014-15 and 2015-16 @@

• As per the Second Advance Estimates for 2015-16 released on 15 February 2016, foodgrains production during 2015-16, estimated at 253.16 million tonnes, is expected to be higher by 1.14 million tonnes over the production of 252.02 million tonnes during 2014-15 @@

• As per the fourth AE, the production of foodgrains during 2014-15 is placed at 252.7 million tonnes (rice at 104.8 million tonnes and wheat at 88.9 million tonnes) vis-à-vis 265.0 million tonnes (rice at 106.6 million tonnes and wheat at 95.9 million tonnes) in 2013-14 (final estimates) and the production of pulses is estimated at 17.2 million tonnes, sugarcane at 359.3 million tonnes, oilseeds at 26.7 million tonnes and cotton at 35.5 million bales of 170 kg each @@

• Among the agriculture and allied sectors, crops including fruits and vegetables account for about 61.0 percent of the Gross Value Added (GVA); the rest by the allied sectors consisting of livestock products, forestry and fisheries @@

• As per the information of the Department of Agriculture, Cooperation and Farmers Welfare for 2015-16 (1st Advance Estimate), the production of foodgrains and oilseeds is estimated to decline by 0.5 percent and 4.1 percent respectively; while the production of fruits and vegetables is likely to increase marginally @@

• As per the 1st Advance Estimate, a brighter picture is expected to emerge from the allied sectors, with a growth exceeding 5.0 percent in 2015-16, which would have provided some impetus to rural incomes during the year @@

• Between 2011-12 and 2014-15, the average ratio of sectoral output (of agriculture and allied activities) to total output was 10.5 percent, whereas the average ratio of sectoral GVA (of agriculture and allied activities) to total GVA was 17.5 percent @@

• The share of agriculture in employment was 48.9 percent of the workforce [National Sample Survey Office (NSSO), 2011-12] while its share in the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) was 17.4 percent in 2014-15 (First Revised Estimates) at constant (2011-12) prices @@

• The acreage under several crops declined substantially in 2014-15 compared to 2013-14 as per the Fourth AE (Advance Estimates) @@

• The largest decline in the areas of gram and groundnut of around 20 and 15 percent respectively, resulted in a decline in production of gram and groundnut by 27 percent and 32 percent in 2014-15 compared to 2013-14 @@

• The average yield of pulses registered negative growth rate over the period 1980-81 over 1970-71 and 2000-01 over 1990-91. The introduction of Bt cotton resulted in a spurt in yield of cotton during the period 2010-11 over 2000-01 @@

• From 2010-11, the percentage changes in average yields of rice, wheat, pulses, oilseeds and cotton are also showing declining trends, which is a cause for concern @@

• China has an average cereal yield of above 5800 kg per ha while India has less than 3000 kg per hectare. USA has the largest average cereal yield of more than 7000 kg per hectare @@

• The percentage share of horticulture output in agriculture is more than 33 percent. Under the purview of agriculture and allied activities, the share of plan outlay for horticulture, which was 3.9 percent during Ninth Plan, has increased to 4.6 percent during the Twelfth Plan @@

• Over the last decade, the area under horticulture grew by about 2.7 percent per annum and annual production increased by 7.0 percent. During 2013-14, the production of horticulture crops was about 283.5 million tones from an area of 24.2 million hectares. Out of the six categories e.g., Fruits, Vegetables, Flowers, Aromatic plants, Spices and Plantation Crops, the highest annual growth of 9.5 percent is seen in fruit production during 2013-14. The production of vegetables has increased from 58,532 thousand tones to 1,67,058 thousand tones since 1991-92 to 2014-15(3rd AE) @@

• India witnessed sharper increase in acreage in horticulture crops compared to food grains over the last five years (from 2010-11 to 2014-15) the area under horticulture crops increased around 18 percent compared to an expansion of area under food grains by 5 percent during the stipulated period. The production of horticulture crops have outpaced the production of food grain since 2012-13 @@
 
• Indian agriculture registered a remarkable average growth rate of 4.1 percent during the Eleventh Five Year Plan (2007-08 to 2011-12) @

• As per the Provisional Estimates, growth rate of agri GDP was 1.4 percent and 4.7 percent respectively during the first two years of the Twelfth Plan period @

• As per the Provisional Estimates, agri exports (including marine products) as percent of total exports was 11.9 percent in 2013-14 @

• Agriculture exports grew by 5.1 percent in the year 2013-14 @

• The net availability of foodgrains has increased in 2013 at 229.1 million tonnes showing a 15 per cent increase over last year. The per capita net availability of foodgrains spurted to 186.4 kg per year from 164.3 kg per year, and the net availability of edible oils also increased from 12.7 kg per year to 15.8 kg per year over the same period @

• India ranks first in milk production, accounting for 18.5 percent of world production, achieving an annual output of 146.3 million tonnes during 2014-15 as compared to 137.69 million tonnes during 2013-14 recording a growth of 6.26 percent @@

• The per capita availability of milk in India has increased from 176 grams per day in 1990-91 to 322 grams per day by 2014-15. It is more than the world average of 294 grams per day during 2013 @@

• Egg production was around 78.48 billion eggs in 2014-15, while poultry meat production was estimated at 3.04 MT @@

• Fisheries constitute about 1 percent of the GDP of the country and 5.08 percent of agriculture GDP. The total fish production during 2014-15 was 10.16 MT, an increase of 6.18 per cent over 2013-14. Fish production during the first two quarters of 2015-16 has also shown an increasing trend and is estimated at 4.79 MT (Provisional) @@
 
• The per capita net availability per day (grams) of pulses has declined from 60.7 gm per day per capita in 1951 to 47.2 gm per day per capita in 2014 @@

• The per capita net availability per day (grams) of cereals has increased from 334.2 gm per day per capita in 1951 to 444.1 gm per day per capita in 2014 @@

Source:
 
 
@@ Economic Survey 2015-16, Ministry of Finance, (Volume-1 , Volume-2)
 
 
 
Livestock
 
* The total livestock population consisting of Cattle, Buffalo, Sheep, Goat, pig, Horses & Ponies, Mules, Donkeys, Camels, Mithun and Yak in the country is 512.05 million numbers in 2012. The total livestock population has decreased by about 3.33% over the previous census.

* Livestock population has increased substantially in Gujarat (15.36%), Uttar Pradesh (14.01%), Assam (10.77%), Punjab (9.57%), Bihar (8.56%), Sikkim (7.96%), Meghalaya (7.41%), and Chhattisgarh (4.34%).

* The number of milch animals (in-milk and dry), cows and buffaloes, has increased from 111.09 million to 118.59 million, an increase of 6.75%.

* The number of animals in milk, cows and buffaloes, has increased from 77.04 million to 80.52 million showing a growth of 4.51%.

* The Female Cattle (Cows) Population has increased by 6.52% over the previous census (2007) and the total number of female cattle in 2012 is 122.9 million numbers.

* The Female Buffalo population has increased by 7.99% over the previous census and the total number of female buffalo is 92.5 million numbers in 2012.

* The exotic/crossbred milch cattle increased from 14.4 million to 19.42 million, an increase of 34.78%.

* Indigenous milch cattle increased from 48.04 million to 48.12 million, an increase of 0.17%.

* The milch buffaloes  increased from 48.64 million to 51.05 million with an increase of 4.95% over previous census.

* The total sheep in the country is 65.06 million numbers in 2012, declined by about 9.07% over census 2007.

* The goat population has declined by 3.82% over the previous census and the total Goat in the country is 135.17 million numbers in 2012.

* The total pigs in the country have decreased by 7.54% over the previous census and the total pigs in the country are 10.29 million numbers in 2012.

* Horses & Ponies population has increased by 2.08% over the previous census and the total Horses & Ponies in the country is 0.62 million numbers in 2012.

* The total Mules in the country have increased by 43.34% over the previous census and the total Mules in the country are 0.19 million numbers in 2012.

* Camel population has decreased by 22.48% over the previous census and the total Camels in the country is 0.4 million numbers in 2012.

* The total donkey population in the country have decreased by 27.22% over the previous census and the total donkeys in the country are 0.32 million numbers in 2012.

* The total poultry population in the country has increased by 12.39% over the previous census and the total poultry in the country is 729.2 million numbers in 2012.

* The total Mithun and Yak in the country has registered a growth rates of 12.98% and -7.64% respectively over the previous census and the Mithuns and Yaks in the country is 0.29 million and 0.07 million in numbers respectively.

Source: 19th Livestock Census (Please click here to download)/ Press Information Bureau, 3 September, 2014
 

Interesting facts about Indian agriculture #


• Percentage of area under field crops cultivated using HYV or hybrid (improved) seeds is 59%
• Percentage of area under field crops cultivated using fertilizers is 81%
• Percentage of area under field crops cultivated using manure is 74%
• Percentage of area under field crops cultivated using pesticides is 47%
• Percentage of area under field crops cultivated using weedicides is 22%
• Percentage of area under field crops cultivated using irrigation is 66%
• Percentage of area under field crops cultivated using tractors and power tillers is 54%
• Percentage of area under field crops cultivated using harvestors and harvestor combines is 6%
• Percentage of area under field crops cultivated with improved seeds in the case of paddy (kharif) is 51%
• Percentage of area under field crops cultivated with improved seeds in the case of paddy (rabi) is 66%
• Percentage of area under field crops cultivated with improved seeds in the case of wheat is 63%
• Percentage of area under field crops cultivated with improved seeds in the case of other cereals is 64%
• Percentage of area under field crops cultivated with improved seeds in the case of pulses is 47%
• Percentage of area under field crops located in villages with Govt. irrigation canals is 25%
• Percentage of mechanically-tilled area using hired tractor/ power-tiller is 72%
• Percentage of rural households engaged in field-crop cultivation is 61%
• Percentage of field-crop cultivator (FCC)* households owning 1 hectare or less of land is 62%
• Percentage of irrigated area hiring irrigation services from other households in canal areas is 40%
• Percentage of irrigated area hiring irrigation services from other households in non-canal areas is 49%

* The category ‘cultivator households’ includes also those households who were reported to have some area under orchards or plantations but none devoted to cultivation of seasonal crops. As distinct from a cultivator household, a field-crop cultivator (FCC) household is defined as one which reported cultivation of at least one field crop during the agricultural year.

# Cultivation Practices in India, Report No. 451(54/31/3), NSS 54th Round, January 1998 – June 1998, published in August 1999


Land and Labour


• Cost of cultivation data shows that labour accounts for more than 40 percent of the total variable cost of production in most cases. The average daily wages for agricultural field labour for ploughing and harvesting at all India level have increased at the rate of 8.7 per cent and 9.2 per cent per annum during 2001-02 to 2010-11 respectively as against the average wages paid for industries covered under Annual Survey of Industries (ASI) at 6.3 per cent per annum*

• A little more than half of total land mass of 328.73 million hectare in the country is used for agriculture. This includes 140.02 million ha net sown area under cultivation and 26.17 million ha for non-agricultural uses. Over the years there is a gradual increase in area under non-agricultural uses. During the last decade (1999-2000 to 2009-10), area under non-agricultural uses has increased by 2.57 million ha (11%). During the same period cultivable land has marginally declined by 1.4 million ha (0.8%) and net sown area has declined by 1.04 million ha (0.7%)*

• As per Agriculture Census 2010-11, small and marginal holdings of less than 2 hectare account for 85 percent of the total operational holdings and 44 percent of the total operated area. The average size of holdings for all operational classes (small & marginal, medium and large) have declined over the years and for all classes put together it has come down to 1.16 hectare in 2010-11 from 2.82 hectare in 1970-71*

• As per estimates of Indian Council of Agricultural Research (2010), out of total geographical area of 328.73 mha, about 120.40 mha is affected by various kind of land degradation resulting in annual soil loss of about 5.3 billion tonnes through erosion. This includes water and wind erosion (94.87 mha), water logging (0.91 mha), soil alkalinity/ sodicity (3.71 mha), soil acidity (17.93 mha), soil salinity (2.73 mha) and mining and industrial waste (0.26 mha). Besides, water and wind erosions are wide spread across the country. As much as 5.3 billion tonnes of soil gets eroded every year. Of the soil so eroded, 29% is permanently lost to sea, 10% is deposited in reservoirs reducing their storage capacity and rest 61% gets shifted from one place to another*

• Per capita availability of land has declined from 0.89 hectare in 1951 to 0.32 hectare in 2001 and is projected to further slide down to 0.20 hectare in 2035. As far as agricultural land is concerned, per capita availability of land has declined from 0.5 hectare in 1951 to 0.18 hectare in 2001 and is likely to decline further. The average land holding size which was about 1.33 ha in 2000-01 has declined to 1.16 ha during 2010-11*

• During the period 1950-51 to 2009-10, the percentage of land used for non agricultural purposes over reporting area has increased from 3.3 to 8.6%. During the last decade (1999-2000 to 2009-10), area under non-agricultural uses has increased by 2.57 million ha i.e. by 11%*

• States where proportion of land under non agricultural uses is higher than all India average (%) are West Bengal, Tamil Nadu, Bihar including Jharkhand, Sikkim, Assam, Tripura, Goa, Andhra Pradesh, Kerala, UP, Haryana and UTs like Chandigarh, Delhi, Pudduchery and Daman & Diu*

• About 52% of the total workforce is still employed by the farm sector which makes more than half of the Indian population dependant on agriculture for sustenance (NSS 66th Round)**  

• Cropping intensity has gone up from 118 per cent in 1970-71 to 138 percent in 2008-09. Cropping intensity refers to raising of a number of crops from the same field during one agriculture year. It can be expressed as Cropping intensity = (Gross cropped area / Net sown area) x 100**

• During the last forty years (1970-71 to 2008-09) the net sown area has remained, by and large, constant at 141 million ha** 

• It is reported that about 120 million ha land is degraded in India, and about 5334 million tonnes of soil is lost annually through soil erosion. Out of 120 million ha degraded area, water erosion accounts for 68 percent, chemical degradation 21 percent, wind erosion 10 percent and the rest physical degradation**

• It is estimated that by 2050, about 22 percent of the geographic area and 17 percent of the population will be under absolute water scarcity. The per capita availability of water which was about 1704 cubic metres in 2010 is projected to be 1235 cm in 2050**

• About 12 million ha area is waterlogged and floods prone in India, wherein the productivity of arable crops is severely affected**

Source:

* State of Indian Agriculture 2012-13,
http://www.indiaenvironmentportal.org.in/files/file/State
of Indian Agriculture 2012-13.pdf
 

** State of Indian Agriculture 2011-12,
 

Food Availability


• Though net availability of foodgrains (per day per capita) has increased from 394.9 grams in 1951 to 439.3 grams in 2007, there have been years when the net availability figures dipped to as low as 416.2 grams for example in 2001****

• Net availability of pulses, which is an important source of protein, has declined from 60.7 grams in 1951 to 29.4 grams per day in 2007****

• Net availability of rice (per day per capita) came down from over 200 grams during the 1990s to below 200 grams during the 2000s****

**** Ministry of Agriculture, Government of India

 

Price Situation

 
• The headline inflation as measured by Consumer Price Index (CPI) remained under control for the third successive financial year. The average CPI inflation declined to 4.9 percent in 2015-16 from 5.9 percent in 2014-15 and stood at 4.8 percent during April-December 2015 *

• Inflation based on Wholesale Price Index (WPI) declined to (-) 2.5 percent in 2015-16 from 2.0 percent in 2014-15 and averaged 2.9 percent during April-December 2016 *

• Inflation is repeatedly being driven by narrow group of food items, of these pulses continued to be the major contributor of food inflation *

• The CPI based core inflation has remained sticky in the current fiscal year averaging around 5 percent *
 
• The year 2015-16 continues to experience moderation in general price levels in the country. The substantial decline in price of the Indian basket of crude oil, through its direct and second round effects, partly contributed to the decline in general inflation for the second successive year @@

• Further, the astute policies and management ofinflation by the government through buffer stocking, timely release of cereals and import of pulses and moderate increase in Minimum Support Prices (MSP) of agricultural commodities helped in keeping prices of essential commodities under check during 2015-16 @@

• Headline inflation, based on the Consumer Price Index (CPI) (combined for rural and urban areas) series, dipped to 4.9 percent during April-January 2015-16 as against 5.9 percent in 2014-15 @@

• Food inflation in terms of the Consumer Food Price Index (CFPI) declined to 4.8 per cent during April-January 2015-16 as compared to 6.4 per cent in 2014-15 @@

• CPI-based core (non-food, non-fuel) inflation also remained range-bound, inching marginally upwards from 4.2 per cent in March 2015 to 4.7 per cent in January 2016 @@

• Headline wholesale price index (WPI) inflation declined following the global trend of declining commodity and producers prices @@

• WPI inflation has remained in the negative territory since November 2014 and was (-) 2.8 percent in 2015-16 (April-January) as compared to 2.0 percent in 2014-15 @@

• The WPI inflation in fuel and power group declined significantly and was (-)12.3 percent in 2015-16 (April-January) from (-)0.9 percent in 2014-15. The decline in global commodity prices resulted in the drop in the WPI based core inflation from 2.4 percent in 2014-15 to (-)1.5 percent in 2015-16 (April-January) @@

• WPI-based food inflation continues to remain moderate at 2.2 percent during 2015-16 (April-January), despite the below average monsoon this year and the sporadic spurt in the prices of pulses and a few other essential commodities in the second half of the year @@

Source:
 
* Economic Survey 2016-17 (released in January 2017), please click here to access
 
@@ Economic Survey 2015-16, Ministry of Finance, (Volume-1 , Volume-2)

  

Migration


• Traditional rural-urban migration has seen a gradual increase, with its share in total migration rising from 16.5% to 21.1% between 1971 and 2001&&

• In India, 73 million people in rural areas have migrated from 1991–2001; of which 53 million have moved to other villages and 20 million to urban areas – a majority of them in search of work&&

• It is estimated that 98 million people moved within the country between 1991 & 2001&&

• On the basis of net migrants by last residence during the past decade (1991-2001), i.e., the difference between in–migration and out–migration, in each state, Maharastra stands at the top of the list with 2.3 million net migrants, followed by Delhi (1.7 million), Gujarat (0.68 million) and Haryana (0.67 million)+

• Uttar Pradesh (-2.6 million) and Bihar (-1.7 million) were the two states with largest number of net migrants migrating out of the state+  

&&Managing the Exodus: Grounding Migration in India, American India Foundation, http://www.aifoundation.org/documents/Report-ManagingtheEx
odus.pdf

+Census 2001, http://www.censusindia.gov.in/Census_And_You/migrations.aspx

 

Poverty and Human Development 

 

• According to the data of the 66th round of the National Sample Survey (2009-10), the average dietary energy intake per person per day was 2147 Kcal for rural India and 2123 Kcal for urban India $*

• As per the Report of Nutritional Intake in India, 2011-12 (NSSO, 68th round), among the bottom 5 percent of rural population ranked by Monthly Per Capita Expenditure (MPCE), 57 percent of households had calorie intake below 2160 Kcal/consumer unit/day $*

• The average protein intake per capita per day rises steadily with MPCE level in rural India from 43gm for the bottom 5 percent of population ranked by MPCE to 91gm for the top 5 percent, and in urban India from 44 gm for the bottom 5 percent to about 87gm for the top 5 percent $*

• India has the second highest number of undernourished people at 194.6 million persons (FAO, State of Food Insecurity in the World, 2015), which warrants immediate attention. Moreover, with 27 percent of the population below the poverty line, the rise in prices of food impacts the poor adversely, with a greater proportion of their household incomes being spent on food $*

• The Economic Survey 2015-16 states that the total expenditure on Social Services including Education, Health, Social Security, Nutrition, Welfare of SC/ST/OBC etc. during 2014-15 (RE) was 7 % of GDP while it was 6.5% during 2013-14 $*

• According to Annual Status of Education Report (ASER) 2014, there is sharp decline between 2007 to 2014 in the number of children in Standard V who can read a textbook of Standard II, in both government and private schools $*

• During 2015-16, about 90 lakh minority students are to be benefited under the Pre-matric, Post-matric and Merit-cum-Means scholarship schemes, while about 23.21 lakh SC students benefited under Pre-matric, 56.30 lakh under Post-matric and 3354 under the Rajiv Gandhi National Fellowship including the Top Class Education scholarship scheme are to be assisted $*

• The expenditure on health as a percentage of total expenditure on social services increased from 18.6% in 2013-14 to 19.3% in 2014-15 (RE) and 19.5% in 2015-16 (BE) $*

• The ‘under five mortality’ has declined from 126 in 1990 to 49 in 2013. As per NFHS-4, the percentage of children fully immunized in the age group (12-23 months) is above 80 per cent in Sikkim and West Bengal. All the 12 states surveyed have more than 50 per cent children fully immunized. Similarly under Mission Indradhanush, 352 districts of the country have been covered with 20.8 lakh children and 5.8 lakh pregnant women immunized in the first phase. 17.2 lakh children and 5.1 lakh pregnant women have been immunized in the second phase and 17 lakh children and 4.8 lakh pregnant women immunized in the third phase of the Mission Indradhanush $*

• There are persistent regional disparities in access to housing and sanitation facilities with some States lagging behind with less than 25 per cent coverage in sanitation facilities $*

• The children surveyed during the Rapid Survey on Children (RSOC) 2013-14 round are on average taller than those surveyed during NFHS 2005-06 $*

• There is a persistent rural-urban height gap $*

• India remains a negative outlier with children being on average two standard deviation shorter than the healthy average $*

• The Economic Survey 2015-16 identifies neo-natal mortality as an important indicator of in-utero nutrition. Out of all infants to die in India, 70 percent die in the first month. A leading cause of this is low birth weight. Underweight women at the beginning of pregnancy are far more likely to have low birth weight babies. 42.2 percent of Indian women are underweight at the beginning of pregnancy in contrast to 35 percent of non-pregnant women of child bearing age being underweight. The Economic Survey 2015-16 says that thus, pregnant women are more likely to be underweight. Additionally, Indian women do-not gain enough weight during pregnancy. Women in India gain 7 kgs. during pregnancy compared to the WHO recommended figure of 12.5-18 kgs $*

• Another reason for poor maternal health is that social norms accord young women low status in joint households. This results in stark within-household nutritional differential $*

• Investing in maternal health could become a top policy priority of the government. The National Food Security Act 2013, legislating a universal cash entitlement for pregnant women of at least Rs. 6000 is a promising opportunity to improve nutrition during pregnancy. The Economic Survey 2015-16 recommended pairing cash transfers with education about pregnancy weight gain $*

• The Economic Survey 2015-16 identifies open defecation as a source of early life disease in India. According to WHO and UNICEF joint monitoring program, 61% of rural Indians defecated in the open in 2015. The Survey notes that income constraints may not be the main determinants of open defecation. Evidence suggests that open defecation leads to child stunting, diarrhoea and environmental enteropathy. Households who do-not defecate in the open have higher height for age scores $*

• The Economic Survey 2015-16 notes the vital importance of the Prime Minister’s Swachh Bharat Mission in raising the profile of the problem of open defecation. In the last year alone, the government has built over 80 lakh toilets. The Economic Survey 2015-16 says that the next challenge in rural India is behavioral $*

• Social programmes like Janani Suraksha Yojana and other schemes under the Integrated Child Development Scheme delivered via Anganwadi program has increased the proportion of breast feeding mothers to 62 percent. The Economic Survey 2015-16 says that creating a nudge unit within government is a useful way of changing norms $*

 

• As per the Human Development Report (HDR) 2015, India ranks 130 out of 188 countries. India’s HDI value for 2014 is 0.609. India has improved her ranking by 6 places between 2009 and 2014 $*

• In comparison to other nations in the BRICS grouping, India has the lowest rank with Russia at 50, Brazil at 75, China at 90 and South Africa at 116 $*

• India’s HDI of 0.609 is also below the average of countries in the medium human development group (0.630) but marginally higher than the HDI average of South Asian countries (0.607) $*

• Between 1980 and 2014, India’s Gross National Income (GNI) per capita increased by about 338 per cent. Over the same period, the Life Expectancy at Birth (LEB) increased by 14.1 years, mean years of schooling by 3.5 years and expected years of schooling by 5.3 years $*
 
• Along with HDI, HDR 2015 also gives the Gender Development Index (GDI) for all the 188 countries. The HDI value for females in India is 0.525 in 2014, which remains unchanged in comparison to that in 2013 $*

• Except Pakistan, all the other four South Asian countries have reported higher HDI values for females in comparison to India $*

• The mean years of schooling for girls in India at 3.6 years is substantially lower than the figure for males and shows the extent of educational deprivation of girl children in India’s cultural context $*

• In 2012, only 24.2 percent of females had accounts in scheduled commercial banks as per the ‘Basic Statistical Returns of Scheduled Commercial Banks’. In rural areas, the percentage of women with bank accounts was 25.5 percent and in urban areas 23.6 percent $*

• By 2014, the percent of women with bank accounts reached only 27.5 percent at the all India level, and in rural areas it was 26.9 percent. In urban areas, the percent of women with bank accounts was 27.2 percent. Even in metropolitan areas only 29.7 percent women have accounts with scheduled commercial banks $*

• As per the status of disposal of cases involving ‘Crimes against Women’ taken up by Courts of Law reported by the National Crime Records Bureau (NCRB) in 2013, out of 38,901 'Dowry death’ cases registered, only 13.6 percent of cases have been tried, out of which only 4.4 percent cases have resulted in convictions $*

 

• Life expectancy at birth in India was 65.4 years in 2011 as against 81.1 years in Norway, 81.9 years in Australia, 74.9 years in Sri Lanka, 73.5 years in China, and the global average of 69.8 years. However, it has increased by one percentage points from 64.4 in 2010 to 65.4 in 2011 €

• The National Human Development Report (NHDR) 2011 of the Institute of Applied Manpower Research and Planning Commission states that India’s HDI between 1999-2000 and 2007-8 has increased by 21 per cent, with an improvement of over 28 per cent in education being the main driver. The increase in HDI in the poorest states of India has been much sharper than the national average and hence the convergence in HDI across states €

• Reserve Bank of India (RBI) data on expenditure on social services by the general overnment (centre and states) as a proportion of total expenditure has also been showing a mixed trend. It had declined to 22.9 per cent in 2012-13 from 24.7 per cent in 2010-11 but increased to 24.1 per cent in 2013-14 (RE) and declined again to 22.3 per cent in 2014-15 (BE). As a percentage of the GDP, expenditure on social services has declined from 6.9 per cent in 2009-10 to 6.7 percent in 2014-15 (BE), with expenditure on education increasing from 3.0 per cent to 3.1 percent and on health declining from 1.4 per cent to 1.2 per cent. There was a consistent rise in absolute social-sector expenditure by the general overnment (centre+state) even during the global crisis of 2008-09 and Euro area crisis of 2011-12, from Rs. 3,80,628 crore during 2008-09 to Rs. 5,80,868 crore in 2011-12 and further to Rs. 8,68,476 crore (BE) during 2014-15 $$

• According to HDR 2011, inequality in India for the period 2000-11 in terms of the income Gini coefficient was 36.8. India’s Gini index was more favourable than those of comparable countries like South Africa (57.8), Brazil (53.9), Thailand (53.6), Turkey (39.7), China (41.5), Sri Lanka (40.3), Malaysia (46.2), Vietnam (37.6), and even the USA (40.8), Hong Kong (43.4), Argentina (45.8), Israel (39.2), and Bulgaria (45.3) which are otherwise ranked very high in human development €

• Based on the 66th round (2009-10) of the National Sample Survey (NSS), average Monthly per Capita Expenditure-MPCE [Modified Mixed Reference Period (MMRP) based] is Rs. 1054 and Rs. 1984 respectively for rural and urban India at the all India level indicating rural-urban income disparities. Out of the MPCE, the share of food is Rs. 600(57 per cent) and Rs. 881(44 per cent) for rural and urban India respectively which shows that food share is more in rural India as compared to urban India €

• Bihar has the lowest Monthly per Capita Expenditure (MPCE) both in rural and urban areas at Rs. 780 (with 65 per cent food share) and Rs. 1238 (with 53 per cent food share) respectively. In comparison, Kerala has the highest in both rural and urban areas at Rs. 1835 (with 46 per cent food share) and Rs. 2413 (with 40 per cent food share) respectively σ

• Agricultural labour households accounted for 41% of rural poor in 1993–94 as well as in 2004–05 %&

• Among social groups, Scheduled Castes (SCs), Scheduled Tribes (STs), and backward castes accounted for 80% of the rural poor in 2004–05 %&

• The number of poor in rural areas in the country as a whole has declined from 2613 lakhs in 1973 to 2209 lakhs in 2004–05 %&

• The Tendulkar Committee has estimated the poverty lines at all India level as an MPCE of Rs. 673 for rural areas and Rs. 860 for urban areas in 2009-10. Based on these cut-offs, the percentage of people living below the poverty line in the country has declined from 37.2 per cent in 2004-5 to 29.8 per cent in 2009-10. Even in absolute terms, the number of poor people has fallen by 52.4 million during this period. Of this, 48.1 million are rural poor and 4.3 million are urban poor. Thus poverty has declined on an average by 1.5 percentage points per year between 2004-5 and 2009-10. The annual average rate of decline during the period 2004-5 to 2009-10 is twice the rate of decline during the period 1993-4 to 2004-5 σ

• The poverty estimates indicate that the highest poverty headcount ratio (HCR) exists in Bihar at 53.5 per cent as against the national average of 29.8 per cent. In 2009-10 compared to 2004-5, Bihar has displaced Odisha as the poorest state, with Odisha's situation improving considerably in 2009-10. Lowest poverty is in Himachal Pradesh (9.5 per cent) followed by Kerala (12 per cent) σ

 

• The latest estimates of poverty are available for the year 2011-12. These estimates have been made following the Tendulkar Committee methodology using household consumption expenditure survey data. For 2011-12, the percentage of persons living below the poverty line is estimated as 25.7 percent in rural areas, 13.7 percent in urban areas, and 21.9 percent for the country as a whole $$


• The exact number of BPL households may vary according to the definition of poverty line one selects. In that case, it would be difficult to target the original BPL households under the new Food Security law. There are four different estimates for the number of BPL households: one by Prof. Arjun Sengupta (www.nceus.gov.in), another by Dr. NC Saxena (www.sccommissioners.org), World Bank estimates and the Planning Commission estimates %$

• According to Prof. Arjun Sengupta who chaired the National Commission for Enterprises in the Unorganized Sector, 77% of the population of India lives below the poverty line. Dr. NC Saxena, a retired civil servant acting as a Commissioner appointed by the Supreme Court, feels that half the country’s population of 1.15 billion is below the poverty line, which he apparently defines as a monthly per capita income of Rs 700 in rural areas and Rs 1,000 in urban areas. While a Planning Commission estimate puts the number of below poverty line (BPL) families at 62.5 million, state governments estimate that this number is closer to 107 million. Some experts feel that availing the public with more number of BPL ration cards help the state-level politicians to win elections through populist means. The World Bank’s figure for the percentage of population below the poverty line in India is 42 per cent, based on 2005 data %$

• The Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA) has had positive outcomes for girl child education leading to an increase in the gender parity index (GPI) in primary (0.94) as well as upper primary (0.92) education €

• Enrolment of girls at primary level and upper primary level increased over the years. Data also shows that the number of girls in schools in the age group of 5-14 years has increased from 79.6 per cent in 2004-5 to 87.7 per cent in 2009-10 €

• The number of girls in the educational system in the 15-19 years age group increased from 40.3 per cent to 54.6 per cent and in the age group 20-24 years from 7.6 per cent to 12.8 per cent over the period 2004-05 to 2009-10 €

• According to India Human Development Report 2011, despite attaining high enrolment rates, the net attendance rates (NAR) remained low. Further, attendance at the upper primary level was lower compared to primary level. Therefore the challenge is to translate the high enrolment into high attendance rates $$

 

• While only 73 per cent literacy has been achieved (Census 2011), there is marked improvement in female literacy $$

 

• Male literacy at 80.9 per cent is still higher than female literacy at 64.6 per cent but the latter increased by 10.9 percentage points compared to the 5.6 percentage points for the former $$

• Total enrolment in primary schools has declined in 2013-14 while upper primary enrolment has grown. This is in line with the demographic changes in the age structure. However, the overall standard of the education system is well below global standards $$

• The single most significant finding of the Annual Status of Education Report (ASER) is that learning levels across the country, whether in public or private schools, have not improved. Clearly, the policy prescription lies in shifting attention away from inputs to outcomes and focus on building quality education and skill development infrastructure. The Padhe Bharat Badhe Bharat initiative to create a base for reading, writing, and math fluency is a good step in this direction $$

 

• As per the India Human Development Report, fertility rates have come down and have reached replacement levels in a number of states; MMR has come down to 212 per 100,000 live births in 2009 from 301 in 2003. IMR, though still high, has fallen to 50 per 1000 in 2009. Institutional deliveries have risen from 39 per cent in 2006 to 78 per cent in 2009 €

• Infant mortality rate (IMR) which was 58 per thousand in the year 2005 has fallen to 44 in the year 2011. The number of rural households provided toilet facilities annually have increased from 6.21 lakh in 2002-3 to 88 lakh in 2011-12 σ

• Kerala is the best performer in terms of life expectancy at birth for both males (71.5 years) and females (76.9 years) whereas Assam is the worst performer for both males (61 years) and females (63.2 years) during 2006-10. Infant mortality rate (IMR) in 2011 is the lowest in Kerala (12) and highest in Madhya Pradesh (59) against the national average of 44. Birth rate is lowest in Kerala (15.2) and highest in Uttar Pradesh (27.8) against the national average of 21.8. Death rate is lowest in West Bengal (6.2) and highest in Odisha (8.5) against the national average of 7.1 σ

Source: $* Economic Survey 2015-16, Ministry of Finance, (Volume-1 , Volume-2)

 

β 2013 Human Development Report–"The Rise of the South: Human Progress in a Diverse World"

 

http://hdr.undp.org/hdr4press/press/outreach/figures/HDI_T
rends_2013.pdf

http://hdr.undp.org/hdr4press/press/outreach/figures/GII_T
rends_2013.pdf

 

σ Economic  Survey 2012-13,

http://indiabudget.nic.in/es2012-13/echap-13.pdf

 

€ Economic Survey 2011-12,

http://indiabudget.nic.in/budget2012-2013/es2011-12/echap-13.pdf 

 

%& 11th Five-Year Plan of the Planning Commission, 

http://www.planningcommission.nic.in/plans/planrel/fiveyr/
11th/11_v3/11v3_ch4.pdf
  

 

%$ Poverty of thought, http://www.business-standard.com/india/news/povertythought
/362649/
 

 

$$ Economic Survey 2014-15 (published in February 2015) (Please click Vol1 and Vol2  to access)

 

Rural Indebtedness


• Most of the indebted households were concentrated in the land classes of area size 0.01-0.40 hectares (i.e. constituted 30.0 percent of the total number of households), area 0.41-1.00 hectares (i.e. constituted 29.8 percent of the total number of households) and area 1.01-2.00 hectares (i.e. constituted 18.8 percent of the total number of households)#
• At the national level, 48.6 farmer households were indebted#
• The average amount of outstanding loan per farmer household at the national level stood at Rs. 12,585#
• Almost 66.4 percent households within the land class of area size >10.0 hectares and 65.1 percent households within the land class of area size 4.01-10.0 hectares were indebted#
• Percentage of indebted farmer households was highest in the state of Andhra Pradesh (82%), to be followed by Tamil Nadu (74.5%), Punjab (65.4%), Kerala (64.4%), Karnataka (61.6%) and Maharastra (54.8%)#

# Report No. 498(59/33/1), Situation Assessment Survey of Farmers: Indebtedness of Farmer Households, National Sample Survey 59th Round (January-December 2003)

 

International Comparisons


• India’s share in the world rice production was 21.51 percent during 2006, following China (29.01%)*****
• India’s share in the world wheat production was 11.44 percent during 2006, following China (17.24%)*****
• Yield of paddy in India was 3,124 kg per hectare during 2006, which was lower as compared to Bangladesh (3,904 kg per hectare), China (6,265 kg per hectare), Egypt (10,598 kg per hectare) and USA (7,694 kg per hectare)*****
• Yield of wheat in India was 2,619 kg per hectare during 2006, which was lower as compared to China (4,455 kg per hectare), Egypt (6,455 kg per hectare), France (6,740 kg per hectare) and USA (2,825 kg per hectare)*****

***** Food and Agriculture Organisation

 

Input Utilisation


• To improve agricultural credit flow, the credit target for 2016-17 has been fixed at Rs. 9 lakh crore against Rs. 8.5 lakh crore for 2015-16. As against the target, the achievement for 2016-17 (upto September 2016), was 84 percent of the target, higher than the corresponding figure of 59 percent upto September 2015 *
 
• As per the latest available data on irrigation, the all India percentage distribution of net irrigated area to total cropped area during 2012-13 was 33.9 percent @@

• There is regional disparity in irrigated farming, with net irrigated area to total cropped area at more than 50 per cent in the states of Punjab, Tamil Nadu and Uttar Pradesh, while it is at less than 50 per cent in the remaining states @@

• The total Ultimate Irrigation Potential (UIP) of India is about 140 million hectares (Mha). There is substantial gap between Irrigation Potential Created (IPC) and the Irrigation Potential Utilized (IPU) during the Five Year Plan periods @@

• There is perceptible decline in the ratio of IPU to IPC due to lack of proper operation and maintenance, incomplete distribution system, non-completion of command area development, changes in cropping pattern and diversion of irrigated land for other purposes @@

• The overall irrigation efficiency of the major and medium irrigation projects in India is estimated at around 38 percent @@

• Efficiency of the surface irrigation system can be improved from about 35-40 percent to around 60 percent and that of groundwater from about 65-70 percent to 75 percent. In order to promote judicious use of water ensuring `more crop per drop’ of water in agriculture for drought proofing, the Government has recently launched the PMKSY aiming at providing water to every field of agriculture @@

• One of the objectives of the Prime Minister’s Krishi Sinchai Yojana (PMKSY) is to enhance on-farm Water-Use-Efficiency (WUE) spatially and temporally to reduce wastage by promoting precision irrigation like sprinkler, drip etc @@

• The adoption of sprinkler irrigation resulted in 35 to 40 percent savings of irrigation water in the cultivation of groundnut and cotton in Gujarat, Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh. The adoption of drip irrigation resulted in 40 to 65 percent savings in water for horticulture crops and 30 to 47 percent for vegetables @@

• The overall level of mechanization in farming is below 50 percent in the case of majority of the farming operations in India @@

• According to the Agricultural Machinery and Manufacturers Association in India, tractor penetration is 38 percent for large farmers (with more than 20 acres), 18 percent for medium farmers (5-20 acres) and just around 1 percent for marginal farmers @@

• It is estimated that the quality of seed accounts for 20 to 25 per cent of productivity (Department of Agriculture, Cooperation and Farmers Welfare, 2015) @@

• The Pardarshi Kisan Sewa Yojana (PKSY) was launched in September, 2014 and rolled out in April 2015 in Uttar Pradesh for distribution of hybrid seeds through DBT (Direct Benefit Transfer). Under this scheme, the quantity of hybrid seeds procured was 15,173 quintals and the subsidy distributed was Rs. 23.77 crores. As on 14.12.2015, for wheat 4.58 lakh quintals of hybrid seeds were distributed under DBT, for pulses 22,296 quintals of hybrid seeds, oilseeds, 1,111 quintals and for barley 960 quintals of hybrid seeds. In total 5,64,909 farmers were beneficiaries under the scheme @@

• The declining response ratio or marginal productivity of fertilizers since the 1970s is a pointer to their inefficient use in Indian agriculture @@

• The yield of grain per kilogram use of NPK fertilizer has declined from 13.4 kg grain per hectare in 1970 to 3.7 kg grain per hectare in irrigated areas by 2005 @@

• According to agronomic trials conducted by the Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR), fertilizers which supplement micro nutrients can provide an additional yield in cereals in the range of 0.3 to 0.6 ton per hectare @@

• With 67 percent of Indian soil characterised by low organic carbon, there is great scope for enhancing the use of organic fertilizers @@

• India uses a low amount of 0.5 kg per ha pesticide compared to 7.0 kg per hectare in the USA, 2.5 kg per hectare in Europe, 12 kg per hectare in Japan and 6.6 kg per hectare in Korea @@

• According to NSSO 70th round data, as much as 40 percent of the funds of farmers still come from informal sources. Local money lenders account for almost 26 percent share of total agricultural credit @@

• The ratio of agricultural credit to agricultural GDP has increased from 10 percent in 1999-2000 to around 38 percent by 2012-13. However, the share of long-term credit in agriculture or investment credit has declined from 55 percent in 2006-07 to 39 percent in 2011-12 @@

• The Government of India has allocated Rs. 15,000 crore to the Long Term Rural Credit Fund (LTRCF) set up in the National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development (NABARD) for 2015-16 as compared to Rs. 5000 crore in 2014-15. With the help of this fund, the Cooperative Banks/ Regional Rural Banks (RRBs) can draw much higher refinance support from NABARD for financing medium- and long-term agricultural loans during 2015-16 @@

• To improve agricultural credit flow, the credit target for 2015-16 has been fixed at Rs. 8,50,000 crore against Rs. 8,00,000 crore for 2014-15. As against the target, the achievement for 2014-15 was Rs. 8,45,328.23 crore (provisional) vis-à-vis Rs. 7,30,122.62 crore for 2013-14 @@

• In India, farmers can avail of crop loans up to Rs. 3 lakh at 7 percent interest and the effective rate of interest has been lowered to 4 percent during 2015-16 for those who repay their loans promptly @@

• The value of total number of agricultural loan accounts stood at Rs. 8.54 crore as on 31 March 2015, out of which crop loans accounted for Rs. 7.41 crore @@
 
• The all-India average consumption of fertilizers has increased from 105.5 kg per ha in 2005-06 to 144 kg per ha in 2011-12. However, our consumption is much lower than that in Pakistan (205 kg per ha) and China (396 kg per ha). The world average consumption of fertilizer was 107 kg per hectare in 2009 @*

• While per hectare fertilizers consumption is 243.56 kg in Punjab and 266.11 kg in Andhra Pradesh, it is comparatively low in MP (88.36 kg/ha), Orissa (56.52 kg/ha), Rajasthan (62.35 kg/ha) and Himachal Pradesh (55.18 kg/ha) and below 5 kg/ha in some of the North Eastern States @*

• It is noteworthy that use of chemical pesticides in India is very low and estimated at only 381 grams per hectare (technical grade pesticide) when compared to the global average of 500 grams of technical grade pesticide per hectare @*

• Different estimates show that more than 50% of consumption of pesticides is garnered by insecticides, whereas herbicides and fungicides together contribute about 30-40% of total pesticide consumption. Bio-pesticides usage has shown a steady increase in the last two decades to reach a consumption level of more than 6000 MTs during 2011-2012 as per information provided by the States @*

• During 2011-12, a total of 7.96 lakh hectares was covered for pest monitoring activity. Similarly, the area coverage for augmentation and conservation of ‘friendly insects’ during 2011-12 was 7.60 lakhs hectares. During the same period, 1760 million bio-control agents were released which was the highest during the 11th Plan period @*

• The ultimate irrigation potential in the country is estimated at about 140 million hectares. Of this, about 58.5 million hectare is from major and medium irrigation sources, and 81.5 million hectare is from minor irrigation sources (about 64.1 million hectare from groundwater irrigation and 17.4 million hectare from surface water). Groundwater provides about 70 percent of irrigation and 80 per cent of the drinking water supplies. The widening gap (about 15 %) between irrigation potential created and that being utilized is also a matter of concern @*

• Decline in water level is observed mostly in northern, north western and eastern parts of the country in the states of Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan, Bihar, Jharkhand, West Bengal, Punjab and Haryana. Decline in water level has also been observed in parts of Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh. Decline in water level of more than 2m, which is considered to be significant is seen in parts of Rajasthan, Haryana, Punjab, and western Uttar Pradesh, western Andhra Pradesh and North West part of Tamil Nadu. Out of 5842 numbers of assessed administrative units (Blocks/ Taluks/ Mandals/ Districts), 802 units are Over-exploited, 169 units are Critical, 523 units are Semi-critical @*

• It is estimated that quality of seed accounts for 20-25% of productivity. The organized sector comprising of both the private and public sector accounts for about 15 to 20% of the total seed distributed in the country. The remaining portion is contributed by the unorganized sector comprising mainly of farm-saved seeds @*

• Among top ten countries, USA is leading by occupying 690 lakh ha cultivating eight GM crops (Maize, soybean, cotton, canola, sugar beet, alfalfa, papaya and squash) followed by Brazil (303 lakh ha – Soybean, maize, cotton), Argentina (237 lakh ha – Soybean, maize, cotton), India (106 lakh ha – Cotton), China (39 lakh ha – Cotton, papaya, poplar, tomato, sweet pepper), Canada (104 lakh ha – Canola, maize, soybean and sugar beet), Paraguay (28 lakh ha – Soybean), Pakistan (26 lakh ha-Cotton), South Africa (23 lakh ha-Maize, soybean, cotton) and Uruguay (13 lakh ha-Soybean, maize) @*

• Besides, an impressive improvement in the productivity of Bt. Cotton, by 15% to 30% as compared to Non-Bt. Cotton, there has been a significant reduction in the usages of insecticide, from 46% in 2001 to 21% during 2009-2010 due to the adoption of transgenic technology @*

• The tractor density in India is about 16 tractors for 1,000 hectares, as against the world average of 19 tractors and that in USA 27 tractors per one thousand hectare of cropped area. Small and marginal farmers who cultivate about 85 per cent of the holdings and account for nearly 44 per cent of the total cultivates area cannot afford high cost agricultural machines @*

• The formal financial institutions accounted for about 66 per cent of the total credit to cultivator households by the early 1990s. However, the share of formal institutional credit to agriculture witnessed some reversal during the period between 1991 and 2002 which was partly due to a contraction in rural branch network in the 1990s, and partly due to the general rigidities in procedures and systems of institutional sources of credit @*

• During the last twenty five crop seasons (i.e. from Rabi 1999-2000 to Rabi 2011-12), 1930 lakh farmers have been covered over an area of 2915 lakh hectares (National Agriculture Insurance Scheme-MNAIS) insuring a sum amounting to Rs. 2555309 crore. Claims to the tune of about Rs. 24528 crore have become payable against the premium income of about Rs. 7698 crore benefiting about 505 lakh farmers. The National Agricultural Insurance Scheme (NAIS) and modified NAIS (MNAIS) provide risk coverage of the crops on the basis of their yield @*

• The Modified National Agriculture Insurance Scheme (MNAIS) has been implemented in 50 districts and 44 districts during Rabi 2011-12 and Kharif 2012 seasons respectively. From Rabi 2010-11 to Rabi 2011-12 (three seasons), 15.38 lakh farmers have been covered over an area of 16.57 lakh hectares insuring a sum amounting to Rs. 3865 crore. Claims to the tune of about Rs. 112 crore have become payable against the premium of about Rs. 323 crore benefiting about 1.45 lakh farmers @*

• The Weather Based Crop Insurance Scheme (WBCIS) is being implemented in 230 districts in 16 States. From Kharif 2007 to Rabi 2011-12, 243 lakh farmers have been covered over an area of 338 lakh hectares insuring a sum amounting to Rs. 42888.99 crore. Claims to the tune of about Rs. 117.91 crore have become payable against the premium of about Rs. 2291.75 crore benefiting about 122 lakh farmers @*

 

Source:

 
* Economic Survey 2016-17 (released in January 2017), please click here to access 
 
@@ Economic Survey 2015-16, Ministry of Finance, (Volume-1 , Volume-2)

 

@* State of Indian Agriculture 2012-13,

http://www.indiaenvironmentportal.org.in/files/file/State
of Indian Agriculture 2012-13.pdf
 

 

Disparities


• Almost 72.2% of the Indian population resides in rural areas*+
• 56.9 percent of the population originates from the age group 15-59 years*+
• Almost 29.3 percent males and 53.9 percent females in rural India are illiterate
• Literacy rate in India stands at 64.8 percent*+
• Rural India (58.7 percent) is less literate than urban India (79.9 percent) *+
• Male literacy rate (75.3 percent) exceeds female literacy rate (53.7 percent) *+
• Kerala (90.9 percent) is the state with the highest literacy rate and Bihar (47.0) is the state with the lowest literacy rate*+
• Sex ratio in rural India is 946 females per 1,000 males, while sex ration in urban India is 900 females per 1,000 males*+
• Kerala (1,058 females per 1,000 males) is the state with the highest sex ratio and Haryana (861 females per 1,000 males) is the state with the lowest sex ratio*+
• Work participation rate among males (51.7 percent) exceed work participation rate among females (25.6 percent) *+
• The highest number of disabled has been reported from the state of Uttar Pradesh (3.6 million) *+

*+Census India 2001, www.censusindia.gov.in

 

 

Basic Indicators

• Under-5 mortality rank 49
• Under-5 mortality rate, 1990 117
• Under-5 mortality rate, 2007 72
• Infant mortality rate (under 1), 1990 83
• Infant mortality rate (under 1), 2007 54
• Neonatal mortality rate, 2004 39
• Total population (thousands), 2007 1169016
• Annual no. of births (thousands), 2007 27119
• Annual no. of under-5 deaths (thousands), 2007 1953
• GNI per capita (US$), 2007 950
• Life expectancy at birth (years), 2007 64
• Total adult literacy rate (%), 2000–2007* 66
• Primary school net enrolment/ attendance (%), 2000–2007* 83
• %  share of household income 1995–2005*, lowest 40% 19
• %  share of household income 1995–2005*, highest 20% 45

Definitions and data sources


Nutrition  

• %  of infants with low birthweight, 2000–2007* 28
• %  of children (2000–2007*) who are:  exclusively breastfed (<6 months) 46
• %  of children (2000–2007*) who are: breastfed with complementary food (6–9 months) 57
• %  of children (2000–2007*) who are: still breastfeeding (20–23 months) 77
• %  of under-fives (2000–2007*) suffering from: underweight† (WHO ref. pop.): moderate ; & severe 43
• %  of under-fives (2000–2007*) suffering from: underweight† (NCHS/WHO): moderate ; & severe 46
• %  of under-fives (2000–2007*) suffering from: wasting? (NCHS/WHO): moderate ; & severe 19
• %  of under-fives (2000–2007*) suffering from: stunting? (NCHS/WHO): moderate ; & severe 38
• Vitamin A supplementation coverage rate (6–59 months) 2007: at least one dose‡ (%) 53
• Vitamin A supplementation coverage rate (6–59 months) 2007: full coverage? (%) 33
• %  of households consuming iodized salt: 2000–2007* 51

Definitions and data sources


Health  

• %  of population using improved drinking-water sources, 2006, total 89
• %  of population using improved drinking-water sources, 2006, urban 96
• %  of population using improved drinking-water sources, 2006, rural 86
• %  of population using improved sanitation facilities, 2006, total 28
• %  of population using improved sanitation facilities, 2006, urban 52
• %  of population using improved sanitation facilities, 2006, rural 18
• %  of routine EPI vaccines financed by government, 2007, total 100
• Immunization 2007: 1-year-old children immunized against: TB: corresponding vaccines: BCG 85
• Immunization 2007: 1-year-old children immunized against: DPT: corresponding vaccines:DPT1b 81
• Immunization 2007: 1-year-old children immunized against: DPT: corresponding vaccines: DPT3b 62
• Immunization 2007: 1-year-old children immunized against: Polio: corresponding vaccines: polio 362
• Immunization 2007: 1-year-old children immunized against: Measles: corresponding vaccines: measles 67
• Immunization 2007: 1-year-old children immunized against: HepB: corresponding vaccines: HepB 36
• Immunization 2007: % newborns protected against tetanus 86
• % under-fives with suspected pneumonia taken to an appropriate health-care provider, 2000–2007* 69
• % under-fives with suspected pneumonia taken to an appropriate health-care provider, 2000–2007* 13
• % under-fives with diarrhoea receiving oral rehydration and continued feeding, 2000–2007* 33
• Malaria 2003–2007*, % under-fives with fever receiving anti-malarial drugs 8

Definitions and data sources


HIV/ AIDS

• Estimated adult HIV prevalence rate (aged 15–49), 2007 0.3
• Estimated number of people (all ages) living with HIV, 2007 (thousands), estimate 2400
• Estimated number of people (all ages) living with HIV, 2007 (thousands), low estimate 1800
• Estimated number of people (all ages) living with HIV, 2007 (thousands), high estimate 3200
• Mother-to-child transmission, Estimated number of women (aged 15+) living with HIV, 2007 (thousands) 880
• Prevention among young people, HIV prevalence among young people (aged 15–24), 2007, male 0.3
• Prevention among young people, HIV prevalence among young people (aged 15–24), 2007, female 0.3
• Prevention among young people, % who have comprehensive knowledge of HIV, 2002–2007*, male 36
• Prevention among young people, % who have comprehensive knowledge of HIV, 2002–2007*, female 20
• Prevention among young people, % who used condom at last higher-risk sex, 2002–2007*, male 37
• Prevention among young people, % who used condom at last higher-risk sex, 2002–2007*, female 22
• Orphans, Children (aged 0–17) orphaned due to all causes, 2007, estimate (thousands) 25000
• Orphans, Orphan school attendance ratio, 2002–2007* 72

Definitions and data sources


Education

• Youth (15–24 years) literacy rate, 2000–2007*, male 87
• Youth (15–24 years) literacy rate, 2000–2007*, female 77
• Number per 100 population, 2006, phones 15
• Number per 100 population, 2006, Internet users 11
• Primary school enrolment ratio 2000–2007*, gross, male 114
• Primary school enrolment ratio 2000–2007*, gross, female 109
• Primary school enrolment ratio 2000–2007*, gross, male 90
• Primary school enrolment ratio 2000–2007*, gross, female 87
• Primary school attendance ratio 2000–2007*, net, male 85
• Primary school attendance ratio 2000–2007*, net, female 81
• Survival rate to last primary grade (%); 2000–2007*, admin. data 73
• Survival rate to last primary grade (%); 2000–2007*, survey data 95
• Secondary school enrolment ratio 2000–2007*, gross, male 59
• Secondary school enrolment ratio 2000–2007*, gross, female 49
• Secondary school attendance ratio 2000–2007*, net, male 59
• Secondary school attendance ratio 2000–2007*, net, female 49

Definitions and data sources


Demographic Indicators

• Population annual growth rate (%), 1970–1990 2.2
• Population annual growth rate (%), 1990–2007 1.8
• Crude death rate, 1970 16
• Crude death rate, 1990 10
• Crude death rate, 2007 8
• Crude birth rate, 1970 38
• Crude birth rate, 1990 32
• Crude birth rate, 2007 23
• Life expectancy, 1970 49
• Life expectancy, 1990 59
• Life expectancy, 2007 64
• Total fertility rate, 2007 2.8
• % of population urbanized, 2007 29
• Average annual growth rate of urban population (%), 1970–1990 3.5
• Average annual growth rate of urban population (%), 1990–2007 2.8

Definitions and data sources


Economic Indicators

• GNI per capita (US$), 2007 950
• GDP per capita average annual growth rate (%), 1970–1990 2.1
• GDP per capita average annual growth rate (%), 1990–2007 4.5
• Average annual rate of inflation (%), 1990–2007 6
• % of population below international poverty line of US$1.25 per day, 2005 42
• % of central government expenditure (1997–2006*) allocated to: defence 14
• % of central government expenditure (1997–2006*) allocated to: health 2
• % of central government expenditure (1997–2006*) allocated to: education 4
• ODA inflow in millions US$, 2006 1379
• ODA inflow as a % of recipient GNI, 2006 0
• Debt service as a % of exports of goods and services, 1990 25
• Debt service as a % of exports of goods and services, 2006 7

Definitions and data sources


Women

• Life expectancy: females as a % of males, 2007 105
• Adult literacy rate: females as a % of males, 2000–2007* 71
• Enrolment and attendance ratios: females as a % of males , Net primary school 2000–2007*, attending 96
• Enrolment and attendance ratios: females as a % of males , Net secondary school 2000–2007*, attending 83
• Contraceptive prevalence (%), 2000–2007* 56
• Antenatal care coverage (%), At least once, 2000–2007* 74
• Antenatal care coverage (%), At least four times, 2000–2007* 37
• Delivery care coverage (%), Skilled attendant at birth, 2000–2007* 47
• Delivery care coverage (%), Institutional delivery, 2000–2007* 39
• Maternal mortality ratio†, 2000–2007* reported 300
• Maternal mortality ratio†, 2005, adjusted 450
• Maternal mortality ratio†, 2005, Lifetime risk of maternal death. 1 in: 70

Definitions and data sources


Child Protection

• Child labour ; (5–14 years) 1999–2007*, total 12
• Child labour ; (5–14 years) 1999–2007*, male 12
• Child labour ; (5–14 years) 1999–2007*, female 12
• Child marriage ; 1998–2007*, total 47
• Child marriage ; 1998–2007*, urban 29
• Child marriage ; 1998–2007*, rural 56
• Birth registration ; 2000–2007*, total 41
• Birth registration ; 2000–2007*, urban 59
• Birth registration ; 2000–2007*, rural 35
• Attitudes towards domestic violence 2001–2007*, total 54

Definitions and data sources


The Rate of Progress

• Under-5 mortality rank 49
• Under-5 mortality rate, 1970 190
• Under-5 mortality rate, 1990 117
• Under-5 mortality rate, 2007 72
• Average annual rate of reduction (%)T, 1970–1990 2.4
• Average annual rate of reduction (%)T, 1990–2007 2.9
• GDP per capita average annual growth rate (%), 1970–1990 2.1
• GDP per capita average annual growth rate (%), 1990–2007 4.5
• Total fertility rate, 1970 5.4
• Total fertility rate, 1990 4
• Total fertility rate, 2007 2.8
• Average annual rate of reduction (%), 1970–1990 1.5
• Average annual rate of reduction (%), 1990–2007 2

Definitions and data sources

 

Mortality rate


• Under-5 mortality rate (2007), Value 72
• Under-5 mortality rate (2007), Rank 49

 

 


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