Unemployment

Unemployment

What's Inside

 

The Annual Report is based on the Periodic Labour Force Survey (PLFS) conducted by NSSO from July 2017 to June 2018. The survey was spread over 12,773 first stage units viz. FSUs (7,014 villages and 5,759 urban blocks) covering 1,02,113 households (56,108 in rural areas and 46,005 in urban areas) and enumerating 4,33,339 persons (2,46,809 in rural areas and 1,86,530 in urban areas). Estimates of the labour force indicators are presented in this report based on the usual status (ps+ss) approach and current weekly status approach adopted in the survey for classification of the population by activity statuses. The reference period for usual status (ps+ss) approach is 1 year and for current weekly status approach, it is 1 week. A rotational panel sampling design was used in urban areas. In this rotational panel scheme each selected household in urban areas is visited four times – in the beginning with first visit schedule and thrice periodically later with revisit schedule. There was no revisit in the rural samples. The estimates of household and population, labour force, workforce and unemployment presented here are based on data collected in the Schedules of first visit in both rural and urban areas.

The key findings of the Annual Report on Periodic Labour Force Survey (July 2017 - June 2018), which has been produced by the National Statistical Office (released in May 2019) are as follows (please click here to access):  

Labour Force

• During 2017-18, according to usual status (ps+ss), about 54.9 percent of rural males and 18.2 percent of rural females were in the labour force. During this period, about 57 percent of urban males and 15.9 percent of urban females were in the labour force according to usual status (ps+ss). 

• Between 2004-05 and 2011-12 as well as between 2011-12 and 2017-18, LFPR in usual status (ps+ss) for rural males remained almost at the same level.

• Between 2004-05 and 2011-12, for rural female, LFPR decreased by nearly 8 percentage points and between 2011-12 and 2017-18 it further decreased by around 7 percentage points.

• Between 2004-05 and 2011-12 as well as between 2011-12 and 2017-18 rounds, LFPR in usual status (ps+ss) for urban males remained at the same level. For urban females, between 2004-05 and 2011-12, LFPR decreased by about 2 percentage points and between 2011-12 and 2017-18, it remained almost at the same level.

• During 2017-18, according to current weekly status, about 54.4 percent of rural males and 16.1 percent of rural females were in the labour force. During this period, about 56.7 percent of urban males and 15.3 percent of urban females were in the labour force according to current weekly status.   

• Between 2004-05 and 2011-12 as well as between 2011-12 and 2017-18, LFPR in current weekly status for rural males remained almost at the same level. Between 2004-05 and 2011-12, for rural female, LFPR decreased by nearly 7 percentage points and between 2011-12 and 2017-18 it further decreased by around 5 percentage points.

• Between 2004-05 and 2017-18, LFPR in current weekly status for urban males remained at the same level. For urban females, between 2004-05 and 2011-12, LFPR in current weekly status, decreased by about 2 percentage points and between 2011-12 and 2017-18, it increased by nearly 1 percentage point.

• Among persons of age 15-29 years, LFPR according to usual status (ps+ss) in India was 38.2 percent: it was 38.1 percent in rural areas and 38.5 percent in urban areas.

• Among persons of age 15 years and above, LFPR according to usual status (ps+ss) in India was 49.8 percent: it was 50.7 percent in rural areas and 47.6 percent in urban areas.

Worker Population Ratio (WPR)

• The Worker Population Ratio (WPR) according to usual status (ps+ss) was about 34.7 percent at the all-India level. It was about 35 percent in rural areas and 33.9 percent in urban areas.

• The WPR according to usual status (ps+ss) was 51.7 percent for rural males, 17.5 percent for rural females, 53 percent for urban males and 14.2 percent for urban females.

• The WPR according to current weekly status (CWS) was about 32.7 percent at the all-India level: 32.6 percent in rural areas and 32.9 percent in urban areas. The WPR according to CWS was 49.6 percent for rural males, 14.8 percent for rural females, 51.7 percent for urban males and 13.3 percent for urban females.

• Among persons of age 15-29 years, WPR according to usual status (ps+ss) in India was 31.4 percent: it was 31.8 percent in rural areas and 30.6 percent in urban areas.

• Among persons of age 15 years and above, WPR according to usual status (ps+ss) in India was 46.8 per cent: it was 48.1 per cent in rural areas and 43.9 percent in urban areas.

• In 2017-18, 24.8 percent of rural working-age men and 74.5 percent of rural working-age (viz. 15-59 years) women were not employed. In urban areas, 25.8 percent of working-age men and 80.2 percent of working-age women were not employed.

Unemployment Rate

• According to usual status (ps+ss), unemployment rate was 5.8 percent among males and 3.8 percent among females in rural areas, while the rates were 7.1 percent among males and 10.8 percent among females in urban areas.

• According to current weekly status (CWS), the unemployment rate was 8.8 percent among males and was 7.7 percent among females in rural areas while the rates were 8.8 percent among males and 12.8 percent among females in urban areas.

• For educated (highest level of education secondary and above) rural males and rural females of age 15 years and above, unemployment rates according to usual status (ps+ss) were 10.5 percent and 17.3 percent, respectively.

• For educated males of age 15 years and above in urban areas, the unemployment rate was 9.2 percent and among the educated females of age 15 years and above in the urban areas, the unemployment rate was 19.8 per cent in 2017-18.

• The unemployment rate among the rural male youth (persons of age 15-29 years) was 17.4 percent while the unemployment rate among the rural female youth was 13.6 percent during 2017-18. The unemployment rate among the urban male youth was 18.7 percent in 2017-18 while the unemployment rate for urban female youth was 27.2 percent during 2017-18.

Labour Force Participation Rate (LFPR) is defined as the percentage of persons in the labour force in the population.

LFPR = {(Number of employed persons + Number of unemployed persons) divided by Total population} multiplied by 100

Worker Population Ratio (WPR) is defined as the percentage of employed persons in the population.

WPR = {Number of employed persons divided by Total population} multiplied by 100

Proportion Unemployed (PU) is defined as the percentage of persons unemployed in the population.

PU = {Number of unemployed persons divided by Total population} multiplied by 100

Unemployment Rate (UR) is defined as the percentage of persons unemployed among the persons in the labour force.

UR = {Number of unemployed persons divided by (Number of employed persons + Number of unemployed persons) } multiplied by 100

In the usual status approach (ps+ss), the activity status of a person is determined on the basis of the reference period of last 365 days preceding the date of survey.

The usual status, determined on the basis of the usual principal activity (ps) and usual subsidiary economic activity (ss) of a person taken together, is considered as the usual activity status of the person and is written as usual status (ps+ss). According to the usual status (ps+ss), workers are those who perform some work activity either in the principal status or in the subsidiary status. Thus, a person who is not a worker in the usual principal status is considered as worker according to the usual status (ps+ss), if the person pursues some subsidiary economic activity for 30 days or more during 365 days preceding the date of survey.

The labour force in current weekly status gives the average picture of the labour force participation in a short period of one week during the survey period. The estimate of labour force according to the current weekly status approach gives the number of persons who worked for at least 1 hour or was seeking/ available for work for at least 1 hour on any day during the 7 days preceding the date of survey.

 


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