The 71st round National Sample Survey on “Social Consumption: Education” was conducted during January to June 2014. The information in the survey was collected from 36,479 households in rural areas and 29,447 households in urban areas during the 71st round.
• Literacy rate among persons of age 7 years and above in India was 75%. In rural areas, literacy rate was 71% compared to 86% in urban areas.
• Differences in literacy rate among persons of age 7 years and above was observed with male literacy rate being substantially higher (83%) than female literacy rate (67%).
• Adult literacy (age 15 years and above) rate in India was around 71%. For adults also, literacy rate in rural areas was lower than that in urban areas. In rural areas, adult literacy rate was 64% as compared to 84% in urban areas.
II. Accessibility of nearest primary, upper primary and secondary school
• No significant difference between rural and urban India existed in terms of distance for physical access to primary schooling. In both rural and urban areas, nearly 99% households reported availability of primary school within 2 kms from the house.
• For accessing educational institutions providing higher level of learning, say upper primary or secondary, a lower proportion of households in rural areas compared to the households in urban areas reported existence of such facilities within 2 kms.
• Nearly 86% of rural households and 96% of urban households reported upper primary schools within a distance of 2 kms from the house while nearly 60% of rural households and 91% of urban households reported secondary schools at such a distance.
III. Completed level of education among persons of age 5 years and above
• The proportion of persons having completed higher level of education, say, graduation and above, was more in the urban areas than in the rural areas.
• In the rural areas, nearly 4.5% of males and 2.2% of females completed education level of ‘graduation and above’ while in the urban areas 17% of males and 13% of females completed this level of education
IV. Attendance and enrolment
• In both rural and urban areas, a very small proportion of persons (nearly 1 per cent) in the age group 5-29 years, were currently enrolled but not attending educational institutions.
• In rural areas 58.7% of males and 53% of females in the 5-29 age-group were currently attending educational institution. In urban areas, the percentages being 57% for males and 54.6% for females.
V. Attendance ratios
• Gross Attendance Ratio of or level ‘primary’ was nearly 100% for both males and females in rural and urban areas.
• Gross Attendance Ratio at level ‘primary to higher secondary’ was 91% and 88% for rural males and females respectively, marginally lower as compared to 93% for both males and females in urban sector.
• Net Attendance Ratio in India at primary level was 84% for male and 83 % for female children in the age-group 6-10 years, the official age-group for Classes I-V.
• There was no major rural-urban or male-female disparity at all-India level till elementary level (primary and upper primary) in the Net Attendance Ratio.
VI. Current attendance by type of education
• In India nearly 85% of the students in age-group 15-29 years were pursuing general education.
• Nearly 12.6% and 2.4% students in age-group 15-29 years were attending technical/ professional and vocational courses respectively.
VII. Attendance by type of courses
• Among the male students pursuing general education, 46% were pursuing humanities as compared to 54% of the female students, 35% of the male students were pursuing science compared to 28% female students and 20% of the male students were pursuing commerce compared to 18% of the female students.
• Among the male students pursing technical/ professional education, 46% were pursuing engineering compared to 29% of the female students and 4% of the male students were pursuing medicine (including nursing) compared to 14% of the female students.
VIII. Type of institution attended
• In rural areas, majority of the students were attending government institutions predominantly up to higher secondary levels, whereas a completely different picture was observed in urban areas.
• In rural areas, 72% of the students at primary level, 76% at upper primary level and 64% at secondary & higher secondary level attended Government institutions, while in urban areas, 31% at primary level, 38% at upper primary level as well as secondary & higher secondary level, attended Government institutions.
IX. Incentives received
• Almost 94% students from rural areas and 87% students from urban areas at primary level studying in government institutions were receiving free education.
• At upper primary level, 89% students in rural areas and 80% students in urban areas, studying in government institutions were receiving free education.
• At secondary and higher secondary level, 58% students in rural areas and 52% students in urban areas, studying in government institutions, received free education.
• 63% of students at primary level and 62% of students at upper primary level received mid-day meal.
X. Private coaching
• At the all-India level, nearly 26% of the students were taking private coaching.
XI. Students staying in hostel
• Nearly 5% of the students in India were staying in hostel for study.
XII. Private expenditure on education
• Average expenditure (Rs.) per student incurred and/or to be incurred during the current academic session was nearly Rs. 6788 for general education, Rs. 62841 for technical/ professional (except vocational) and Rs. 27676 for vocational course.
• At primary level, expenditure per student in urban areas was Rs. 10083, more than four times than that in rural areas (Rs. 2811).
• Average expenditure on technical education in private aided & unaided institutions varied between nearly 1.5-2.5 times of that in government institutions.
• Nearly 46% of the expenditure for general education and 73% of the expenditure for technical education was on course fee.
• For students pursuing general courses, 15% was spent on private coaching as against 3% for students pursuing technical/ professional education (including vocational).
XIII. Never-enrolment and discontinuance of education
• In India, nearly 11% of the persons of age 5-29 years in rural areas and 6% in urban areas never enrolled in any educational institution.
• In India, proportion of persons in the age group 5-29 years dropping out/ discontinued studies were nearly 33% in rural areas and 38% in urban areas.
• For the males of age 5-29 years, engagement in economic activities was the most common reason for dropping out (30% in rural areas and 34% in urban areas), whereas for the females, the dominant reason was engagement in domestic activities (33% in rural areas and 23% in urban areas).
• In rural areas, the major reason for never enrolment for persons of age 5-29 years was ‘not interested in education’ (33% male and 27% female) while in urban areas, nearly 33% males and 30% females in the age group 5-29 years never enrolled because of ‘financial constraints’.
XIV. Access to computer and internet
• Nearly 6% of rural households and 29% of urban household possessed computer.
• In India, among households with at least one member of age 14 years and above, nearly 27% had internet access in the survey year, 2014. The proportions were 16% among rural households and 49% of urban households.
• Among persons of age 14-29 years, nearly 18% in rural areas and 49% in urban areas were able to operate a computer.