The Urban HUNGaMA (Hunger and Malnutrition) Survey Report was released in February, 2018. Naandi Foundation carried out this survey in India’s ten most populous cities – Mumbai, Delhi, Bengaluru, Hyderabad, Ahmedabad, Chennai, Kolkata, Surat, Pune and Jaipur to measure the nutrition status of children aged 0-59 months. These 10 cities account for 5.3 percent of India’s population and 4.1 percent of the child population aged 0-71 months. The survey also provides estimated percentages of stunting, underweight, wasting and overweight by city and separately for boys and girls.
A total of 12,286 mothers were interviewed and 14,616 children aged 0-59 months measured for height and weight. The Urban HUNGaMA Survey presents underweight, stunting and wasting data of children.
The survey was carried out between April and July 2014. It used a three-stage systematic sampling methodology to select a representative sample of 11,955 households.
• The proportion of children born with low birth weight (i.e. less than 2.5 kg) was 15.7 percent, ranging from 13.5 percent in Hyderabad to 25.1 percent in Kolkata.
• In all, 22.3 percent of children under five years of age were stunted (chronic under-nutrition) and 7.6 percent were severely stunted.
• The prevalence of stunting ranged from 14.8 percent in Chennai to 30.6 percent in Delhi. It was significantly higher among children whose mothers had five years of schooling or less (35.3 percent compared to 16.7 percent among children whose mothers had 10 or more years of schooling) and children from households in the lowest wealth quintile (29.3 percent compared to 15.0 percent among children from households in the highest wealth quintile).
• Overall, 13.9 percent of children were wasted (acute under-nutrition) and 3.2 percent were severely wasted.
• The prevalence of wasting ranged from 10.8 percent in Jaipur to 19.0 percent in Mumbai.
• As in the case of stunting, the prevalence of wasting was significantly higher among children whose mothers had five years of schooling or less (17.6 percent compared to 12.2 percent among children of mothers with 10 or more years of schooling) and children from households in the lowest wealth quintile (16.7 percent compared to 10.5% among children from households in the highest wealth quintile).
• The prevalence of overweight in children was 2.4 percent, ranging from 0.7 percent in Hyderabad to 3.7 percent in Chennai.
• The prevalence of overweight was significantly higher among children from the highest wealth quintile (3.6 percent compared to 1.8 percent among children from households in the lowest wealth quintile).
• The Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India has issued recommendations on infant and young child feeding (IYCF) practices, and the survey revealed sub-optimal compliance with those recommendations: 37.7 percent of children aged 0-23 months were breastfed within one hour of birth (ranging from 13.3 percent in Jaipur to 66.8 percent in Chennai); 30.47 percent of children aged 0-5 months were exclusively breastfed (ranging from 12.0 percent in Chennai to 38.7 percent in Kolkata); 45.2 percent of children aged 6-8 months were fed complementary foods (ranging from 29.1 percent in Jaipur to 70.5 percent in Chennai); 47.2 percent of children aged 6-23 months met the standard of minimum meal frequency (ranging from 21.8 percent in Delhi to 88.8 percent in Mumbai); and 37.8 percent of children aged 6-23 months received at least a minimum number of food groups (dietary diversity) (ranging from 22.7 percent in Ahmedabad to 59.4 percent in Kolkata).
• On indicators of minimum dietary requirements (breastmilk/ milk, minimum meal frequency, and minimum dietary diversity) 22.5 percent of children aged 6-23 months were fed in accordance with all three (ranging from 9.7 percent in Surat to 47.3 percent in Kolkata).
• In the 10 most populous cities of India, one in four children has stunted growth and development due to chronic nutrition deprivation.
• Poor infant and young child feeding practices, compounded by the poor status of women, the prevalence of household poverty and lack of government service delivery centre seem to be three major drivers of stunting among urban children.
• Less than one in four children (22.5 percent) were fed a diet that meets the minimum requirements for healthy growth and development.