Poverty and inequality

Poverty and inequality

What's Inside



The Socio Economic and Caste Census 2011 (released in July 2015) provides useful data on households regarding various aspects of their socio-economic status – housing, land-holding/landlessness, educational status, status of women, the differently able, occupation, possession of assets, SC/ST households, incomes, etc.

The SECC 2011 has provision for automatic exclusion on the basis of 14 parameters, automatic inclusion on the basis of 5 parameters and grading of deprivation on the basis of seven criteria. The data addresses the multi dimensionality of poverty and provides a unique opportunity for a convergent, evidence based planning with a Gram Panchayat as a unit.

Based on fulfilling any of the following 14 parameters of exclusion, a household will be enumerated as excluded i.e.

i. Motorized 2/3/4 wheeler/fishing boat;
ii. Mechanized 3 – 4 wheeler agricultural equipment;
iii. Kisan credit card with credit limit of over Rs. 50,000/-;
iv. Household member government employee;
v. Households with non-agricultural enterprises registered with government;
vi. Any member of household earning more than Rs. 10,000 per month;
vii. Paying income tax;
viii. Paying professional tax;
ix. 3 or more rooms with pucca walls and roof;
x. owns a refrigerator;
xi. Owns landline phone;
xii. Owns more than 2.5 acres of irrigated land with 1 irrigation equipment;
xiii. 5 acres or more of irrigated land for two or more crop season;
xiv. Owning at least 7.5 acres of land or more with at least one irrigation equipment.

Based on fulfilling any of the following 5 parameters of inclusion, a household will be enumerated as automatically included i.e.

i. Households without shelter;
ii. Destitute, living on alms;
iii. Manual scavenger families;
iv. Primitive tribal groups;
v. Legally released bonded labour.

The 7 deprivation criteria are:

i. Households with only one room, kuccha walls and kuccha roof;
ii. No adult member in household between age 18 and 59;
iii. Female headed household with no adult male member between 16 and 59;
iv. Households with differently able member with no other able bodied adult member;
v. SC/ST Households;
vi. Households with no literate adult above age 25 years;
vii. Landless households deriving a major part of their income from manual labour.

The SECC 2011 has three census components, which were conducted by three separate authorities but under the overall coordination of Department of Rural Development (under the Ministry of Rural Development) in the Government of India. The Census in Rural Area has been conducted by the Department of Rural Development (DoRD). The Census in Urban areas is under the administrative jurisdiction of the Ministry of Housing and Urban Poverty Alleviation (MoHUPA). The Caste Census is under the administrative control of the Ministry of Home Affairs: Registrar General of India (RGI) and Census Commissioner of India.

At each stage of the SECC, there was an opportunity for transparency and grievance redressal. A total of 1.24 crore claims and objections were received of which 99.7 percent have already been resolved. Gram Panchayats and Gram Sabhas were involved in this process, besides School Teachers and Data Entry Operators as enumerators.

As per the Socio Economic Caste Census (www.secc.gov.in) data, which was released in July 2015:

Rural scenario

• Nearly 73.4 percent of households in India live in rural areas i.e. there are 17.91 crore rural households out of total 24.39 crore households.

• Based on the 14 different exclusion parameters adopted during SECC survey, it has been found that the total number of excluded households in the rural areas is 7.05 crore (39.4 percent).

• Based on the 5 different automatic inclusion parameters, it has been found that 16.5 lakh households in rural areas are extremely poor, which is merely 0.92 percent of total rural households.

• It has been found that in the rural areas there are nearly 8.69 crore households i.e.  48.5 percent of total rural households, which are deprived in any one of the 7 deprivation criteria adopted by the SECC.

Deprivation in rural India

• The SECC 2011 has found that 2.37 crore households (13.2 percent) in rural areas live in houses with only one room, kuccha walls and kuccha roof.

• There are 65.15 lakh such households (3.64 percent) in rural areas, which have no adult member in household between age 18 and 59 years.

• There are 68.96 lakh female headed households (3.85 percent) in rural areas with no adult male member between 16 and 59.

• There are 7.16 lakh rural households with differently able member (0.40 percent) without any other able bodied adult member.

• There are 3.86 crore Scheduled Caste (SC) and Scheduled Tribe (ST) households (21.5 percent) in rural areas. 

• There are 4.21 crore (23.5 percent) rural households with no literate adult above the age of 25 years.

• There are 5.37 crore (almost 30 percent) rural landless households deriving a major part of their income from manual labour.

Sources of rural livelihood

• There are 5.39 crore rural households (nearly 30 percent) that rely on cultivation.

• There are 9.16 crore rural households (nearly 51.1 percent) that rely on manual casual labour.

• The percentage of landless rural households deriving major part of their income from manual casual labour is 38.3 percent at the national level. The same varies from 6.03 percent in Nagaland to 55.8 percent in Tamil Nadu. 

• There are 44.84 lakh rural households (nearly 2.5 percent) that depend on part-time or full time domestic service.

• There are 4.08 lakh rural households (a miniscule 0.23 percent) that rely on rag picking etc.

• There are 28.87 lakh non-agricultural own account enterprises (1.61 percent) in the rural areas.

• The percentage of households with non-agricultural enterprises registered with government is 2.73 percent at the national level. The same varies from 0.57 percent in Chhattisgarh to 19.54 percent in NCT of Delhi.

• There are 6.68 lakh rural households (a miniscule 0.37 percent) that rely on begging/ charity/ alms. The percentage of households with destitutes/ living on alms varied from 0.05 percent in Manipur and Tamil Nadu to 1.26 percent in West Bengal.

• There are 2.5 crore rural households (almost 14 percent) that rely on government service, private service, PSU employment, etc.

More information on the excluded

• The percentage of households owning irrigated land is 25.63 percent. The same varies from 2.13 percent in Chandigarh to 50.31 percent in Uttar Pradesh.

• The percentage of households owning mechanized three/four wheeler agricultural equipments is 4.12 percent. The same varies from 0.36 percent in Kerala to 16.16 percent in Punjab.

• The percentage of rural households having kisan credit card with the credit limit of Rs.50,000 and above is 3.62 percent. The same varies from 0.24 percent in Lakshadweep to 9.63 percent in Haryana.

• The percentage of rural household which don't own land but have kissan credit card is 0.39 percent. The same varies from 0.10 percent in Dadra and Nagar Haveli to 4.65 percent in Daman and Diu.

• The percentage of rural households with irrigation equipment is 9.87 percent at the national level. The same varies from 0.72 percent in Arunachal Pradesh to 23.54 percent in Haryana.

• The percentage of rural households which have no land but have irrigation equipment is 0.89 percent. The same varies from 0.15 percent in Jammu and Kashmir to 8.52 percent in Daman and Diu.

• The percentage of rural households paying income tax / professional tax is 4.58 percent at the national level. The same varies from 1.81 percent in Chhattisgarh to 23.21% in Andaman and Nicobar Islands.

• The percentage of rural households without any phone is 27.93 percent at the national level. The same varies from 3.94 percent in NCT of Delhi to 70.88 percent in Chhattisgarh.

• The percentage of rural households with salaried job in government is 5 percent. The same varies from 1.93 percent in Andhra Pradesh to 41.1 percent in Lakshadweep.

• The percentage of rural households among which the monthly income of highest earning household member has been greater than Rs. 10000 is 8.29 percent. The same varies from 3.2 percent in Chhattisgarh to 43.19 percent in Lakshadweep.

• The percentage share of rural households owning a refrigerator is 11.04 percent. The same varies from 2.61 percent in Bihar to 69.37 percent in Goa.

• The percentage share of rural households having motorized two/ three/ four wheelers and fishing boats is 20.69 percent. The same varies from 8.09 percent in Tripura to 65.85 percent in Goa.
 
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