PDS/ Ration/ Food Security

PDS/ Ration/ Food Security


The NSS Report no. 565: Public Distribution System and Other Sources of Household Consumption, 2011-12 is based on information collected through NSS Schedule 1.0 (Consumer Expenditure), Type 2, during July 2011-June 2012 from 101651 households (59683 rural and 41968 urban) in 7469 villages and 5268 urban blocks spread over the entire country.

According to the NSS 68th Round report: PDS and Other Sources of Household Consumption, 2011-12 (released in June 2015), please click here to access:

• The PDS share in rice consumption in 2011-12 was about 27.9% in the rural sector and about 19.6% in the urban sector. The share of PDS in wheat/atta consumption was about 17.3% in the rural sector and about 10.1% in the urban. PDS purchases accounted for 15.8% of consumption of sugar in the rural sector, and for 10.3% in the urban sector. For kerosene, on the other hand, the contribution of PDS purchase was 80.8% in rural areas and 58.1% in urban.

Rice: Utilisation of PDS across states

• At the national level, the proportion of households reporting PDS purchase of rice during a 30-day period was 46% in the rural sector and about 23% in the urban sector.

• The major States with relatively high incidence of PDS purchase of rice in the rural sector were Tamil Nadu (89% households), Andhra Pradesh (87%), Kerala (78%) and Karnataka (75%).

• In the urban sector, Tamil Nadu (67% households) again had the highest proportion of households reporting purchase during a 30-day period, followed by Kerala (61%), Andhra Pradesh (about 45%) and Chhattisgarh (42%).

• The contribution of PDS purchases was highest in Tamil Nadu (rural: 53%, urban: 43%), followed by Karnataka (rural: 45%, urban: 25%), Chhattisgarh (rural: 38%, urban: 30%), Kerala (rural: 36%, urban: 30%) and Andhra Pradesh (rural: 33%, urban: 22%). For West Bengal, where rice is the main item of cereal consumption, the share of PDS purchases in consumption was lowest (rural: 10%, urban: 6%).

Wheat/ Atta: Utilisation of PDS across states

• At the all-India level, the proportion of households reporting PDS purchase of wheat/atta during a 30-day period was about 34% in the rural sector and 19% in the urban sector.

• Among the major States where wheat is the major cereal food, the States with the highest incidence of PDS purchase of wheat/atta in the rural sector were Maharashtra (40%), Madhya Pradesh (36% households), and Gujarat (32%).

• In the urban sector, among predominantly wheat-consuming States, Madhya Pradesh (23%) had the highest incidence of PDS purchase.

• The contribution of PDS purchases was highest in Maharashtra (30%), followed by Gujarat and Madhya Pradesh (18%) among the predominantly wheat-consuming State in rural sector. In the urban sector, among States where wheat is an important cereal food, the PDS share in consumption was relatively high in Madhya Pradesh (14%).

Sugar: Utilisation of PDS across states

• The proportion of households reporting PDS purchase was highest in Tamil Nadu (rural: 90%, urban: 77%), followed by Andhra Pradesh (rural: 82%, urban: 42%), Assam (rural: 71%, urban: 41%) Chhattisgarh (rural: 66%, urban: 36%), and Karnataka (rural: 67%, urban: 27%).

• The incidence of PDS purchase was very low in Punjab, Jharkhand, Bihar and Rajasthan, urban areas of Maharashtra and Gujarat (0-5% households), and also low in Haryana, and urban areas of Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal (5-10%).

Kerosene: Utilisation of PDS across states


• In both rural and urban sectors of each State, a considerably larger proportion of households reported consumption of kerosene from PDS purchase than from other sources. For India as a whole, 76% rural households and 30% urban households reported consumption of kerosene from PDS purchases, while 22% rural households and 16% urban households reported consumption of kerosene from other sources.

• In all major States except Punjab and Haryana, the proportion of households reporting consumption of kerosene from PDS purchase ranged from 62% to 91% in the rural sector and from 10% to 59% in the urban sector.

• Both in rural and urban India, use of kerosene from PDS was most widespread in West Bengal (91% of rural households, 59% of urban), followed by Bihar (88% rural, 53% urban), and Chhattisgarh (86% rural, 48% urban).

Consumption from Home-growth  stock in rural India


• About 29.4% of total cereal consumption and 10.3% of total pulse consumption in rural India in 2011-12 came from home-grown stock; this is not very different from the 2009-10 estimate.

• For rice, the share of home produce in quantity of consumption increased from 25% in 2009-10 to 28% in 2011-12, whereas for wheat/atta, it decreased marginally from 37% to 36% during this period.

• For pulses, as a whole, the share of home produce in quantity of consumption remained almost unchanged since 2009-10. The share increased for ‘moong’ and ‘split gram’; for the other varieties it either decreased or remained unchanged.

• For milk, the share of home produce dropped by about 2 percentage points since 2009-10 to about 57%. The percentage of households reporting “only home consumption” of milk was around 33%.

Distribution of Households by type of Ration Card possessed

 

• At national level, 5% rural households possessed Antyodaya ration cards, 38% had BPL cards, 42% possessed cards other than BPL and Antyodaya, and the remaining 14% did not have any card. Among urban households, 2% had Antyodaya cards, 16% had BPL cards, 50% had other cards, and 33% had none.

• Among the different household types in rural India, the proportion possessing Antyodaya was highest (7%) for casual labour in agriculture & non-agriculture households. For the ‘regular wage-salary earning’ category, the incidence was as low as 3%. BPL cards were possessed by 56% of households of the ‘casual labour in agriculture’ category.

• In rural India, Antyodaya cards were possessed by 8% of SC households, 7% of ST households and 3% of households of the ‘Others’ category. BPL cards were possessed by 49% of ST and 47% of SC households, and by 26% households of the ‘Others’ category.

• In urban India, on the other hand, possession of an Antyodaya card was rare for all the social groups: 3% for SC & ST, 2% for OBC and 1% for ‘Others’. Around 20% of ST, SC and OBC households, but only 8% of ‘Others’ had BPL cards. Scheduled Tribes had the highest proportion (41%) of households with no ration card.

• At all-India level, incidence of possession of Antyodaya as well as BPL cards was seen to fall with increase in size of land possessed. At the same time, it is of interest to note that households belonging to the smallest size class of land possessed had the highest proportion (21%) of households with no ration card.

• In rural areas, the percentage of households possessing Antyodaya cards exceeded 5% in nine out of seventeen major States. In urban India, on the other hand, the percentage possessing Antyodaya cards was low for all the major states, the highest being only 4% (Chhattisgarh).

• In both rural and urban India, the incidence of possession of BPL cards was relatively high in Andhra Pradesh (85% rural, 49% urban), Karnataka (64% rural, 29% urban) and Chhattisgarh (59% rural, 33% urban).

 




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