SDGs

SDGs



As per the NITI Aayog website (please click here to access), India' present status vis-à-vis the SDGs, broadly speaking, are as follows:

Goal 1

* Globally, the number of people living in extreme poverty has declined by more than half from 1.9 billion in 1990. However, 836 million people still live in extreme poverty. About one in five persons in developing regions lives on less than $1.25 per day.
* Southern Asia and sub-Saharan Africa are home to the overwhelming majority of people living in extreme poverty.
* High poverty rates are often found in small, fragile and conflict-affected countries.
* One in four children under age five in the world has inadequate height for his or her age.
* The all India Poverty Head Count Ratio (PHCR) has been brought down from 47 percent in 1990 to 21 percent in 2011-2012, nearly halved.

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Goal 2

* Globally, the proportion of undernourished people in the developing regions has fallen by almost half since 1990, from 23.3 percent in 1990-1992 to 12.9 percent in 2014-2016. However, one in nine people in the world today (795 million) are still undernourished.
* The vast majority of the world’s hungry people live in developing countries, where 12.9 percent of the population is undernourished.
* Asia is the continent with the hungriest people – two-thirds of the total. The percentage in southern Asia has fallen in recent years, but in western Asia it has increased slightly.
* Sub-Saharan Africa is the region with the highest prevalence (percentage of population) of hunger. About one person in four there is undernourished.
* Poor nutrition causes nearly half (45 percent) of deaths in children under five – 3.1 million children each year.
* One in four of the world’s children suffer stunted growth. In developing countries the proportion rises to one in three.
* 66 million primary school-age children in developing countries attend classes hungry, with 23 million in Africa alone.
* Agriculture is the single largest employer in the world, providing livelihoods for 40 percent of today’s global population. It is the largest source of income and jobs for poor rural households.
* 500 million small farms worldwide, most still rain fed, provide up to 80 percent of food consumed in a large part of the developing world. Investing in smallholder farmers is an important way to increase food security and nutrition for the poorest, as well as food production for local and global markets.
* In 1990, 53 percent of all Indian children were malnourished. In 2015, malnourishment declined to 40 percent.

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Goal 3

Child health

* 17,000 fewer children die each day than in 1990, but more than six million children still die before their fifth birthday each year.
* Since 2000, measles vaccines have averted nearly 15.6 million deaths.
* Despite global progress, an increasing proportion of child deaths are in sub-Saharan Africa and Southern Asia. Four out of every five deaths of children under age five occur in these regions.
* India’s Under Five Mortality (U5MR) declined from 125 per 1,000 live births in 1990 to 49 per 1,000 live births in 2013.

Maternal health

* Globally, maternal mortality has fallen by almost 50 percent since 1990.
* In Eastern Asia, Northern Africa and Southern Asia, maternal mortality has declined by around two-thirds. But, the maternal mortality ratio – the proportion of mothers that do not survive childbirth compared to those who do – in developing regions is still 14 times higher than in the developed regions.
* Only half of women in developing regions receive the recommended amount of health care.
* From a Maternal Mortality Rate (MMR) of 437 per 100,000 live births in 1990-91, India came down to 167 in 2009. Delivery in institutional facilities has risen from 26 percent in 1992-93 to 72 percent in 2009.

HIV/ AIDS

* By 2014, there were 13.6 million people accessing antiretroviral therapy, an increase from just 800,000 in 2003.
* New HIV infections in 2013 were estimated at 2.1 million, which was 38 percent lower than in 2001.
* At the end of 2013, there were an estimated 35 million people living with HIV.
* At the end of 2013, 240,000 children were newly infected with HIV.
* India has made significant strides in reducing the prevalence of HIV and AIDS across different types of high-risk categories. Adult prevalence has come down from 0.45 percent in 2002 to 0.27 in 2011.

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Goal 4

* Enrolment in primary education in developing countries has reached 91 percent, but 57 million children remain out of school.
* More than half of children who have not enrolled in school live in sub-Saharan Africa.
* An estimated 50 percent of out-of-school children of primary school age live in conflict-affected areas. Children in the poorest households are 4 times as likely to be out of school as children in the richest households.
* The world has achieved equality in primary education between girls and boys, but few countries have achieved that target at all levels of education.
* Among youth aged 15 to 24, the literacy rate has improved globally from 83 per cent to 91 per cent between 1990 and 2015.
* India has made significant progress in universalizing primary education. Enrolment and completion rates of girls in primary school have improved as are elementary completion rates. The net enrolment ratio in primary education (for both sexes) is 88 percent (2013-14). At the national level, male and female youth literacy rate is 94 percent and 92 percent.

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Goal 5

* In Southern Asia, only 74 girls were enrolled in primary school for every 100 boys in 1990. By 2012, the enrolment ratios were the same for girls and for boys.
* In sub-Saharan Africa, Oceania and Western Asia, girls still face barriers to entering both primary and secondary school.
* Women in Northern Africa hold less than one in five paid jobs in the non-agricultural sector.
* In 46 countries, women now hold more than 30 percent of seats in national parliament in at least one chamber.
* India is on track to achieve gender parity at all education levels, having already achieved it at the primary level. The ratio of female literacy to male literacy for 15- 24 year olds is 0.91.
* As of August 2015, in India the proportion of seats in National Parliament held by women is only 12 percent against the target of 50 percent.

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Goal 6

* In 2015, 91 percent of the global population is using an improved drinking water source, compared to 76 percent in 1990. However, 2.5 billion people lack access to basic sanitation services, such as toilets or latrines.
* Each day, an average of 5,000 children die due to preventable water and sanitation-related diseases.
* Hydropower is the most important and widely used renewable source of energy and as of 2011, represented 16 percent of total electricity production worldwide.
* Approximately 70 percent of all available water is used for irrigation.
* Floods account for 15 percent of all deaths related to natural disasters.
* The overall proportion of households in India having access to improved water sources increased from 68 percent in 1992-93 to 90.6 percent in 2011-12.
* In 2012, 59 percent households in rural areas and 8 percent in urban India did not have access to improved sanitation facilities. Almost 600 million people in India defecate in the open, the highest number in the world.

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Goal 7

* 1.3 billion people – one in five globally – still lack access to modern electricity.
* 3 billion people rely on wood, coal, charcoal or animal waste for cooking and heating.
* Energy is the dominant contributor to climate change, accounting for around 60 percent of total global greenhouse gas emissions.
* Energy from renewable resources – wind, water, solar, biomass and geothermal energy – is inexhaustible and clean. Renewable energy currently constitutes 15 percent of the global energy mix.
* The total installed capacity for electricity generation in India has registered a compound annual growth rate of 7 percent (2013-14).
* The total installed capacity of grid interactive renewable power has been showing a growth rate of over 12 percent (2013-14).

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Goal 8

* Global unemployment increased from 170 million in 2007 to nearly 202 million in 2012, of which about 75 million are young women and men.
* Nearly 2.2 billion people live below the US$2 poverty line and poverty eradication is only possible through stable and well-paid jobs.
* 470 million jobs are needed globally for new entrants to the labour market between 2016 and 2030.
* Small and medium-sized enterprises that engage in industrial processing and manufacturing are the most critical for the early stages of industrialization and are typically the largest job creators. They make up over 90 percent of business worldwide and account for between 50-60 percent of employment.
* The unemployment rate in India is estimated to be approximately 5 percent at All India level (2013-14). India’s labour force is set to grow by more than 8 million per year.

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Goal 9

* About 2.6 billion people in the developing world are facing difficulties in accessing electricity full time.
* 2.5 billion people worldwide lack access to basic sanitation and almost 800 million people lack access to water, many hundreds of millions of them in sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia.
* 1 to 1.5 million people do not have access to reliable phone service.
* For many African countries, particularly the lower-income countries, infrastructure constraints affect company productivity by around 40 percent.
* Manufacturing is an important employer, accounting for around 470 million jobs worldwide in 2009 – or around 16 percent of the world’s workforce of 2.9 billion. It is estimated that there were more than half a billion jobs in manufacturing in 2013.
* Industrialization’s job multiplication effect has a positive impact on society. Every one job in manufacturing creates 2.2 jobs in other sectors.
* In developing countries, barely 30 percent of agricultural production undergoes industrial processing. In high-income countries, 98 percent is processed. This suggests that there are great opportunities for developing countries in agribusiness.
* India’s growth rate averaged at 7.25 percent in the last 5 years.
* India’s CO2 emissions per capita are 1.67 (metric tons), one of the lowest in the world, the global average being around 4-5(metric tons). In 2010, per capita annual electricity consumption was 626 kwH compared to the global average of 2977 kwH.

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Goal 10

* On average – and taking into account population size – income inequality increased by 11 percent in developing countries between 1990 and 2010.
* A significant majority of households in developing countries – more than 75 percent – are living today in societies where income is more unequally distributed than it was in the 1990s.
* Children in the poorest 20 percent of the population are still up to three times more likely to die before their fifth birthday than children in the richest quintiles.
* Social protection has been significantly extended globally, yet persons with disabilities are up to five times more likely than average to incur catastrophic health expenditures.
* Despite overall declines in maternal mortality in the majority of developing countries, women in rural areas are still up to three times more likely to die while giving birth than women living in urban centres.
* The Gini Coefficient of income inequality for India has risen from 33.4 percent in 2004 to 33.6 percent in 2011.

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Goal 11

* Half of humanity – 3.5 billion people – lives in cities today. By 2030, almost 60 percent of the world’s population will live in urban areas.
* 828 million people live in slums today and the number keeps rising.
* The world’s cities occupy just 2 percent of the Earth’s land, but account for 60 – 80 percent of energy consumption and 75 percent of carbon emissions. Rapid urbanization is exerting pressure on fresh water supplies, sewage, the living environment, and public health. But the high density of cities can bring efficiency gains and technological innovation while reducing resource and energy consumption.
* Cities have the potential to either dissipate the distribution of energy or optimize their efficiency by reducing energy consumption and adopting green – energy systems. For instance, Rizhao, China has turned itself into a solar – powered city; in its central districts, 99 percent of households already use solar water heaters.
* 68 percent of India’s total population lives in rural areas (2013-14).
* By 2030, India is expected to be home to 6 mega-cities with populations above 10 million. Currently 17 percent of India’s urban population lives in slums.

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Goal 12

* 1.3 billion tonnes of food are wasted every year.
* If people worldwide switched to energy-efficient lightbulbs, the world would save US$120 billion annually.
* Should the global population reach 9.6 billion by 2050, the equivalent of almost three planets could be required to provide the natural resources needed to sustain current lifestyles.
* More than 1 billion people still do not have access to fresh water.
* India is the fourth largest GHG emitter, responsible for 5.3 percent of global emissions. India has committed to reduce the emissions intensity of its GDP by 20 to 25 percent by 2020.

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Goal 13

* The greenhouse gas emissions from human activities are driving climate change and continue to rise. They are now at their highest levels in history. Global emissions of carbon dioxide have increased by almost 50 percent since 1990.
* The atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide have increased to levels unprecedented in at least the last 800,000 years. Carbon dioxide concentrations have increased by 40 percent since pre-industrial times, primarily from fossil fuel emissions and secondarily from net land use change emissions. The ocean has absorbed about 30 percent of the emitted anthropogenic carbon dioxide, causing ocean acidification.
* Each of the last three decades has been successively warmer at the Earth’s surface than any preceding decade since 1850. In the Northern Hemisphere, 1983-2012 was likely the warmest 30-year period of the last 1,400 years.
* From 1880 to 2012, average global temperature increased by 0.85°C. Without action, the world’s average surface temperature is projected to rise over the 21st century and is likely to surpass 3 degrees Celsius this century – with some areas of the world, including in the tropics and subtropics, expected to warm even more. The poorest and most vulnerable people are being affected the most.
* The rate of sea level rise since the mid-19th century has been larger than the mean rate during the previous two millennia. Over the period 1901 to 2010, global mean sea level rose by 0.19 [0.17 to 0.21] meters.
* From 1901 to 2010, the global average sea level rose by 19 cm as oceans expanded due to warming and melted ice. The Arctic’s sea ice extent has shrunk in every successive decade since 1979, with 1.07 million km² of ice loss every decade.
* It is still possible, using an array of technological measures and changes in behaviour, to limit the increase in global mean temperature to two degrees Celsius above pre-industrial levels.
* There are multiple mitigation pathways to achieve the substantial emissions reductions over the next few decades necessary to limit, with a greater than 66 percent chance, the warming to 2ºC – the goal set by governments. However, delaying additional mitigation to 2030 will substantially increase the technological, economic, social and institutional challenges associated with limiting the warming over the 21 century to below 2 ºC relative to pre-industrial levels
* India has committed to reduce the emissions intensity of its GDP by 20 to 25 percent by 2020.

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Goal 14

* Oceans cover three-quarters of the Earth’s surface, contain 97 percent of the Earth’s water, and represent 99 percent of the living space on the planet by volume.
* Globally, the market value of marine and coastal resources and industries is estimated at $3 trillion per year or about 5 percent of global GDP.
* Globally, the levels of capture fisheries are near the ocean’s productive capacity, with catches on the order of 80 million tons.
* Oceans contain nearly 200,000 identified species, but actual numbers may lie in the millions.
* Oceans absorb about 30 percent of carbon dioxide produced by humans, buffering the impacts of global warming.
* Oceans serve as the world’s largest source of protein, with more than 3 billion people depending on the oceans as their primary source.
* Marine fisheries directly or indirectly employ over 200 million people.
* Subsidies for fishing are contributing to the rapid depletion of many fish species and are preventing efforts to save and restore global fisheries and related jobs, causing ocean fisheries to generate US$ 50 billion less per year.
* As much as 40 percent of world oceans are heavily affected by human activities, including pollution, depleted fisheries, and loss of coastal habitats.
* There are some 120 species of marine mammal to be found in the world, and a fourth of these may be found in India and adjacent countries. More than 1 million people in 3651 villages of India situated along the coast are employed in marine capture fisheries.

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Goal 15

* Thirteen million hectares of forests are being lost every year.
* Around 1.6 billion people depend on forests for their livelihood. This includes some 70 million indigenous people. Forests are home to more than 80 percent of all terrestrial species of animals, plants and insects.
* 2.6 billion people depend directly on agriculture, but 52 percent of the land used for agriculture is moderately or severely affected by soil degradation.
* Due to drought and desertification each year, 12 million hectares are lost (23 hectares per minute), where 20 million tons of grain could have been grown.
* Of the 8,300 animal breeds known, 8 percent are extinct and 22 percent are at risk of extinction.
* As many as 80 percent of people living in rural areas in developing countries rely on traditional plant-based medicines for basic healthcare.
* Forest cover in India has increased to 21.23 percent - an increase of 5871 sq. km, and protected areas cover to about 4.8 percent of the country’s total land area.
* India is among the early movers on the Nagoya protocol and is committed to the Aichi targets on conserving biodiversity.
* India has 8 percent of the world’s biodiversity with many species that are not found anywhere else in the world.

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Goal 16

* The number of refugees of concern to the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) stood at 13 million in mid-2014, up from a year earlier.
* Corruption, bribery, theft and tax evasion cost some US $1.26 trillion for developing countries per year.
* The rate of children leaving primary school in conflict-affected countries reached 50 percent in 2011, which amounts to 28.5 million children.
* In India, more than 20 percent of all pupils and one-third of all Scheduled Tribe students drop out before finishing primary education.

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Goal 17

* Official development assistance (ODA) stood at approximately $135 billion in 2014.
* In 2014, 79 percent of imports from developing countries entered developed countries duty-free.
* The debt burden on developing countries remains stable at about 3 percent of export revenue.
* The number of internet users in Africa almost doubled in the past four years.
* As of 2015, 95 percent of the world’s population is covered by a mobile-cellular signal.
* 30 percent of the world’s youth are digital natives, active online for at least five years.
* Internet penetration has grown from just over 6 percent of the world’s population in 2000 to 43 percent in 2015.
* But more than four billion people do not use the Internet, and 90 percent of them are from the developing world.
* India has the second highest number of Internet users in the world however, Internet penetration in the country is under 20 percent.



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