Gender Pay Gap in the Formal Sector: 2006-2013
The report entitled: "Gender Pay Gap in the Formal Sector: 2006-2013 -WageIndicator Data Report (Preliminary Evidences from Paycheck India Data)" aims at quantifying the magnitude of gender-based disparities that women face in the organized sector of the Indian labour market, and track their progress over time. The extent of the gender pay gap is measured on various parameters such as age, educational qualifications, industry, work experience, designation, level of skill, marital status, etc., for years 2006 to 2013 (June).
Being an online volunteer survey, the data is biased towards those who have access to the internet and are inclined to complete the questionnaire. Because of this limitation, the data captures only the organized sector in India.
The data for this report has been generated between 2006 and 2013 (June), through the online voluntary Salary Survey of Paycheck.in.
This paper uses survey data of individuals from India. The data has been collected from the continuous and voluntary Paycheck India web survey (www.paycheck.in) that is posted in English and Hindi. The survey contains questions about wages, education, occupation, industry, sociodemographics, and the like.
Some key observations are:
* The gender pay gap in India for the year 2013 was 24.81%. The gender pay gap in India has been declining over the years. Women earned 44.80% less than men before 2007.
* The gender pay gap varies across Indian states. Women in Uttarakhand earned 9% less than men, whereas women in Bihar earned 63% less than men.
* The gender pay gap increases with age. Women in the age group below 30 years (18 to 30 years) earned 23.07% less than men, whereas women in the age group of above 30-40 years earned 30.24% less than men.
* The gender pay gap increases with higher educational qualifications. Women who attained educational qualification below 10th standard earned 9.37% less than men, whereas women with professional qualifications such as CA/CS/ICWA or equivalent earn 44.25 % less than male.
* The gender pay gap is different across various industries. Women employed in; accommodation & food service activity and industry earned 4.19% less than men whereas those employed in arts, entertainment and recreation industry earned 41.17% less than men.
* The gender pay gap varies with an increase in work experience, following a cyclical pattern. Women with work experience of 31 years or more earned 78.23% less than men whereas women with work experience between 16-30 years earned 24.96% less than men.
* The gender pay gap increases with progression in the occupational hierarchy. Women working as trainees earned only 11.35% less than men whereas women higher in hierarchy in positions of heads earned 38.59% less than men.
* Skill levels also affect the extent of the gender pay gap. For semi-skilled jobs, women earned 6.80% more than men whereas for highly skilled jobs women earned almost 36.77% less than men.
* The marital status of individuals also affects the gender pay gap. Women who were never married earned 26.53% less than men, whereas divorced women earned 28.53% less than men.
Please click here to download the report.
eSocialSciences.org, November, 2013, http://www.esocialsciences.org/Articles/showArticle.aspx?acat=Recent+Articles&aid=5571