Resource centre on India's rural distress
 
 

Disaster & Relief

KEY TRENDS

 

• In 8 out of 17 states/ UTs the flood management works were not taken up in an integrated manner covering entire river/ tributary or a major segment of rivers/ tributaries and the Preliminary Project Reports/ Detailed Project Reports (DPRs) were not prepared in accordance with the  scheme guidelines. There were huge delays in completion of FMP works which ranged from 10 months to 13 years due to delay in approval of DPRs by the Empowered Committee/ Inter-Ministerial Committee, leading to technical designs becoming irrelevant at the time of actual funding $$
 

• In India total number of people displaced in 2013 due to natural hazards is 2.14 million. However, total number of displaced due to conflict (violent in nature) during 2013 is 64,000 $

 

• During the year 2013, in India 1.04 million people were displaced due to floods and 1.0 million people were displaced due to the tropical cyclone Phailin $

 

• India is one of the ten worst disaster prone countries of the world@

 
• During the last two decades of the 20th century (1982-2001), natural disasters in India had claimed a total death toll of around 1,07,813 people (on an average more than 5,390 death toll every year)@

• India has faced more than 260 events of disasters and over 3.5 million people were affected between 1975 and 2001@

• About 60% of the landmass is prone to earthquakes of various intensities; over 40 million hectares is prone to floods; about 8% of the total area is prone to cyclones and 68% of the area is susceptible to drought*

• In the decade 1990-2000, an average of about 4,344 people lost their lives and about 30 million people were affected by disasters every year*

• The super cyclone in Orissa in October, 1999 and the Bhuj earthquake in Gujarat in January, 2001 underscored the need to adopt a multi dimensional endeavour involving diverse scientific, engineering, financial and social processes; the need to adopt multi disciplinary and multi sectoral approach and incorporation of risk reduction in the developmental plans and strategies*

• The monsoons play a critical role in determining whether the harvest will be bountiful, average or poor in any given year**

• A Disaster Risk Management Programme has been taken up with the assistance from UNDP, USAID and European Union in 169 most hazard prone districts in 17 States including all the 8 North Eastern State*

$$ Report No. 10 of 2017: Performance audit of Union Government Schemes for Flood Control and Flood Forecasting Reports of Ministry of Water Resources, River Development & Ganga Rejuvenation (tabled in the Parliament on  21 July, 2017), please click here to access
 
$ Global Estimates 2014: People displaced by disasters, produced by Norwegian Refugee Council and Internal Displacement Monitoring Centre (please click here to download)
 
@ Disaster Management in India (2011), Ministry of Home Affairs, GoI
 
* Disaster Management in India, Ministry of Home Affairs, Government of India
 
** Natural Disasters and Crop Insurance, Government of India
 

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Please click here to access the report by Central Water Commission entitled [inside]Flood Damage Statistics (state-wise and for the country as a whole) from 1953 to 2016 (released on 10th May, 2018)[/inside]


Flood is one of the natural calamities that the country faces almost every year in varying degree of magnitude. The frequent occurrence of flood can be attributed to various factors, including wide variation in rainfall over time and space and inadequate carrying capacity of rivers. As per Working Group on Flood Control Management Programme for the XI Five Year Plan (2007-2012), the total flood prone area worked out to 45.64 million hectare (m.ha.).

The Government of India has set up various committees for management of flood like Rashtriya Barh Aayog, Task Force 2004 and Working Group on Water Resources for XI Plan. The Government has also framed the National Water Policy 2002 and 2012 to govern the planning and development of water resources and their optimum utilization. The reports of the above committees/policies gave certain recommendations for management of flood in time bound manner. To achieve the above recommendations, schemes for flood control viz. Flood Management Programme, Flood Forecasting, River Management Activities and Works related to Border Areas and Emergency Action Plan for Dam were implemented.

The Performance Audit on “Schemes for Flood Control and Flood Forecasting” examined whether schemes for flood control and flood forecasting were efficient and effective, and whether the review and oversight mechanisms were effective.

The Comptroller and Auditor General (CAG) of India sampled 206 Flood Management Programme projects, 38 flood forecasting stations, 49 River Management Activities and works related to Border Area projects and 68 large Dams, in 17 selected states/ UTs during 2007-08 to 2015-16.

The key findings of the [inside]Report No. 10 of 2017: Performance audit of Union Government Schemes for Flood Control and Flood Forecasting Reports of Ministry of Water Resources, River Development & Ganga Rejuvenation (tabled in the Parliament on  21 July, 2017)[/inside], are as follows (please click here to access) : 

Financial Management of Flood Management Programme (FMP)

• There were inordinate delays in 48 projects of four states ranging between 2 to 21 months in releasing the first instalment of Central assistance to the state governments after approval of the Empowered Committee.

• An amount of Rs. 600.92 crore along with interest of Rs. 18.30 crore recoverable as loan from the  state governments for not releasing the Central assistance within 15 days to the executing agencies, was not recovered by the Central Government.

• Funds amounting to Rs. 171.28 crore in six projects of five states were not utilised and remained parked for the period ranging between 15 months to more than 60 months. Funds amounting to Rs. 36.57 crore in 3 states were diverted by the implementing agencies for works not approved in the Detailed Project Reports.

• An expenditure amounting to Rs. 18.12 crore incurred in the previous financial year before its approval by Empowered Committee was included in the cost of project in contravention of clause 4.10.3 of the Flood Management Programme guidelines. Further, an amount of Rs. 19.99 crore was released in excess in two projects in Bihar and Uttarakhand.

• The state governments did not ensure submission of audited statements of expenditure and Utilisation Certificates within stipulated time before releasing Central assistance.

Execution of Flood Management Programme

• In 8 out of 17 states/ UTs the flood management works were not taken up in an integrated manner covering entire river/ tributary or a major segment of rivers/ tributaries and the Preliminary Project Reports/ Detailed Project Reports (DPRs) were not prepared in accordance with the scheme guidelines. There were huge delays in completion of FMP works which ranged from 10 months to 13 years due to delay in approval of DPRs by the Empowered Committee/ Inter-Ministerial Committee, leading to technical designs becoming irrelevant at the time of actual funding.

• There were delays in completion of FMP projects due to non-release/ timely release of funds (Central share/ state share) and due to non-acquisition of required land.

• Deficiencies were noticed in contract management viz. execution of work without call of tender, award of contract to large number of contractors, splitting of works, etc. 

• In four projects at Arunachal Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh, the actual quantity of work executed was below the approved scope of work. In four projects expenditure of Rs. 9.78 crore was incurred without the approval of the Competent Authority.  GI wires valuing Rs. 25.40 crore remained unutilised in one project of Himachal Pradesh. Irregular grant of mobilization advance amounting to Rs. 80.36 crore in three states resulted in loss of interest of Rs. 15.84 crore. An expenditure of Rs. 34.51 crore was incurred on jeep track/ inspection roads with Water Bound Macadam (WBM)/ Bitumen (BT) surface over the flood embankment, which was ineligible under FMP.

• No programme for upkeep and maintenance of the completed projects, with separate budget provision as envisaged in the FMP guidelines was framed.

• The Central Water Commission (CWC) did not identify any drainage system, which needed immediate rehabilitation and adopt measures for its repair and restoration.

Flood Forecasting

• Against a target for the XII Plan for installation of 219 telemetry stations, 310 base stations and 100 flood forecasting stations, only 56 telemetry stations had been installed as of August 2016.

• Out of 375 telemetry stations, 222 number of telemetry stations were non-functional after installation and thus real time data was not available for the corresponding periods.

• Flood forecasting data was used in the formulation of flood forecast only after comparing the telemetry data with manually observed data; and in the case of mismatch between the two sets of data, manual data was adopted. Thus, CWC did not depend on telemetry data and relied on manual data even after investing in modernisation of telemetry station network for nearly 20 years. This defeated the purpose of establishment of telemetry equipment for meeting the requirement of real time data collection, its transmission and flood forecast formulation.

• No flood forecasting stations have been established in Tamil Nadu. In the XII Plan, action plan for installation of 41 telemetry stations in Tamil Nadu was prepared (July 2016) but tenders remained to be finalised.

• In Odisha, non-maintenance of water level in Hirakud dam as per the rule curve and simultaneous opening later on of 50 flood gates caused heavy discharge of water resulting in flooding in downstream areas. In Uttarakhand, the flood forecasting could not be issued in time due to incorrect fixation of warning and danger levels.

Other Schemes for Flood Control

• There were huge delays in completion of River Management Activities and Works related to Border Areas projects, which were long term solutions for the flood problems of Assam, North Bihar and Eastern Uttar Pradesh. There were discrepancies in execution of works like irregular award of work, splitting of tenders, and payment at higher rates.

• Out of 4,862 Large Dams, Emergency Action Plans/ Disaster Management Plans of only 349 (seven per  cent) large dams had been prepared (March 2016).  Further, only 231 (five percent) large dams evolved operating procedure/ manuals. Out of 17 states/ UTs only two states had fully carried out the pre and post monsoon inspection of the dams, three states had carried out the inspections partially and remaining 12 states had not carried out these inspections. The Dam Safety Legislation initiated in 2010 has not been enacted till August 2016. Programme for maintenance of dams were not prepared and adequate funds were not provided to carry out structural/ repair works.

Implementation of the recommendations of Review and oversight Committee for Flood Control Measures

• The recommendations of Rashtriya Barh Ayog with regard to identification of area affected by flood in country remained unfulfilled. Scientific assessment of flood prone areas had not been completed in any of the 17 states/ UTs.

• Only Bihar and Odisha out of 17 states/ UT had prepared Frequency Based Flood Inundation maps for the flood affected areas.

• Morphological studies, with a view to achieve  better results in building, renovating  and maintaining revetments, spurs and embankments to control and mitigate disasters caused by floods, were not completed by any of the 17 states/ UTs.

• Ten states had not prepared Comprehensive Master Plan for flood management and prepared their flood management projects on selective basis.

• Three states had enacted Flood Plain Zoning Act, but demarcation of flood zones was yet to be done.

Monitoring and Evaluation

• No performance evaluation was conducted for the projects in five states (Bihar, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Jharkhand and Odisha). Three state governments (Manipur, Sikkim and West Bengal) did not take any action for rectification of the deficiencies pointed out during the performance evaluation of 26 completed projects under Flood Management Programme. Concurrent evaluation of projects under Flood Management Programme was not conducted in accordance with schemes guidelines in nine projects under Flood Management Programme in three states (Assam, Himachal Pradesh and West Bengal).

• Remote Sensing was not used in the monitoring of projects under the Flood Management Programme.

• During site visits carried out in the 17 states/ UTs, various deficiencies were noticed in the structures created under 14 projects under Flood Management Programme in 11 states. In 23 dams of six states deficiencies relating to spillway gates, check dams, weed growth and encroachment in downstream and low lying areas of dams, seepages, etc. were also noticed.  

 

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According to the report entitled: [inside]Global Estimates 2014: People displaced by disasters[/inside], which has been produced by Norwegian Refugee Council and Internal Displacement Monitoring Centre (please click here to download):

•    During the year 2013, in India 1.04 million people were displaced due to floods and 1.0 million people were displaced due to the tropical cyclone Phailin.

•    India ranks third (total no. of people displaced in 2013: 2.14 million) among countries with highest levels of displacement due to natural hazards. However, total number of displaced in India due to conflict (violent in nature) during 2013 is 64,000.

•    India ranks second (total no. of people displaced during 2008-2013: 26.13 million) among countries with highest levels of displacement during 2008-2013. However, China ranks first (total no. of people displaced: 54.25 million) among countries with highest levels of displacement during 2008-2013.

•    In October 2013, widespread monsoon season floods displaced over a million in several Indian states. In the same month, cyclone Phailin, the strongest to hit India in 14 years, brought widespread devastation to eastern coastal areas and forced the evacuation of another million people. The report acknowledges that improved preparedness, including evacuations, has been credited with limiting the death toll to fewer than 50 people.

•    Between 2008 and 2013, 80.9 per cent of displacement took place in Asia. The region accounted for the 14 largest displacements of 2013 and the five countries with the highest displacement levels are: the Philippines, China, India, Bangladesh and Vietnam.

•    China, India, the Philippines, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Nigeria and the US had the highest numbers of people displaced by rapid-onset disasters over the six-year period.

•    Worldwide 22 million people were displaced in 2013 by disasters sparked largely by earthquakes or climate- and weather-related events - almost three times more than by conflict in the same year.

•    The risk of displacement due to disasters has more than doubled over the last four decades-largely due to the growth and concentration of urban populations, particularly in vulnerable countries.

•    Both wealthy and poorer countries are affected, although developing countries bear the brunt, accounting for more than 85 per cent of displacement. But as in previous years the worst affected was Asia, where 19 million people, or 87.1 per cent of the global total, were displaced.

•    As the world gears up to solidify a post-2015 development agenda, there will also be an opportunity to include the needs and challenges of internally displaced people in negotiations.

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According to the report entitled [inside]Disaster Management in India (2011)[/inside], Ministry of Home Affairs, GoI, http://ndmindia.nic.in/UNDP-020811.pdf:  

Table a and table b show the major disasters faced by India.
Table a
Table b

Table c shows how disasters affected India economically between 1980 and 2009.

Table c

Table d shows the damage caused due to floods, cyclonic storms, landslides etc. during last ten years in India.

Table d

•    During the second half of the 20th century, more than 200 worst natural disasters occurred in the different parts of the world and claimed lives of around 1.4 million people. Losses due to natural disasters are 20 times greater (as % of GDP) in the developing countries than in industrialized one. Asia tops the list of casualties due to natural disasters.

•    India has faced more than 260 events of disasters and over 3.5 million people were affected between 1975 and 2001.

•    The number of disasters events globally which was 73 in 1900-09 increased to 4495 during 2000-2009. The rise in disaster events between the decade of 1900-99 and 2000-09 has been 6057.5%. The number of hydro meteorological disasters events increased from 28 in 1900-09 to 3529 in 2000-09. The number of geological disasters events increased from 40 in 1900-09 to 354 in 2000-09. The number of biological disasters events increased from 5 in 1900-09 to 612 in 2000-09. 

•    Globally, 78.4% of the disaster events during 1900-2009 comprised hydro meteorological events. Nearly 653128 persons died due to hydro meteorological events during 1900-2009.

•    According to the World Meteorological Organization (WMO), data of major natural disasters/ extremes that occurred around the world during the period 1963-2002, indicates that floods and droughts cause the maximum damage.

•    During the last thirty years’ time span India has been hit by 431 major disasters resulting into enormous loss to life and property. According to the Prevention Web statistics, 143039 people were killed and about 150 crore were affected by various disasters in the country during these three decades. The disasters caused huge loss to property and other infrastructures costing more than US $ 4800 crore.

•    In India, the cyclone which occurred on 25th November, 1839 had a death toll of three lakh people. The Bhuj earthquake of 2001 in Gujarat and the Super Cyclone of Orissa on 29th October, 1999 are still fresh in the memory of most Indians. The most recent natural disaster of a cloud burst resulting in flash floods and mudflow in Leh and surrounding areas in the early hours of 6th August, 2010, caused severe damage in terms of human lives as well as property. There was a reported death toll of 196 persons, 65 missing persons, 3,661 damaged houses and 27,350 hectares of affected crop area.

•    Out of 35 states and union territories in the country, 27 of them are disaster prone. Almost 58.6 per cent of the landmass is prone to earthquakes of moderate to very high intensity; over 40 million hectares (12 per cent of land) are prone to floods and river erosion; of the 7,516 km long coastline, close to 5,700 km is prone to cyclones and tsunamis; 68 per cent of the cultivable area is vulnerable to drought and hilly areas are at risk from landslides and avalanches.

•    India is one of the ten worst disaster prone countries of the world. The country is prone to disasters due to number of factors; both natural and human induced, including adverse geo climatic conditions, topographic features, environmental degradation, population growth, urbanisation, industrialization, non scientific development practices.

•    During the last two decades of the 20th century (1982-2001), natural disasters in India had claimed a total death toll of around 1,07,813 people (on an average more than 5,390 death toll every year).

•    India with its extended coast line is exposed to five to six tropical cyclones on an average, both from the Arabian Sea and Bay of Bengal annually.

•    During the complete 124 year period there were three occasions i.e. 1877, 1899 and 1918 when percentage of the country affected by drought was more than 60 percent). In the span of 124 years, the probability of occurrence of drought was found maximum in Rajasthan (25 %), Saurastra & Kutch (23%), followed by Jammu & Kashmir (21%) and Gujarat (21%) region. The drought of 1987 in various parts of the country was of “unprecedented intensity” resulting in serious crop damages and an alarming scarcity of drinking water.

•    The average annual rainfall is less than 13 cm over the western Rajasthan, while Mausiram in the Meghalaya has as much as 1141 cm. During the period from 1871 to 2009, there were 27 major drought years in India. One of the major reasons for these droughts has been a strong link with the El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) patterns and its linkages with Indian food grain production.

•    Around 68 percent of the country is prone to drought in varying degrees. Of the entire area 35 percent receives rain falls between 750 mm and 1125 mm which is considers drought prone while 33 percent which receives rainfalls between less than 750 mm is considered to be chronically drought prone.

•    Thirty one disaster management centres have been set up throughout the country, one in each state and two each in Assam and UP.

•    The 13th Finance Commission has recommended an initial grant of Rs. 250.00 crores in the form of a revolving fund to be provided to the National Disaster Response Fund (NDRF) to keep an inventory of equipment and material for immediate relief during the outbreak of disasters.

•    A Scheme for Strengthening of Fire and Emergency Service in the country was launched in 2009 with an outlay of Rs. 200 crores (2009-2012).

•    The Government of India has launched a Centrally Sponsored Scheme in April 2009 with an outlay of Rs. 100 crore during the 11th Five Year Plan for revamping of Civil Defence setup in the country (2009-2012).

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According to [inside]Disaster Management in India[/inside], Ministry of Home Affairs, Government of India, http://www.unisdr.org/eng/mdgs-drr/national-reports/India-report.pdf:


• Disaster management occupies an important place in this country’s policy framework as it is the poor and the under-privileged who is worst affected on account of calamities/disasters.

• India has been traditionally vulnerable to natural disasters on account of its unique geo-climatic conditions.  Floods, droughts, cyclones, earthquakes and landslides have been recurrent phenomena. About 60% of the landmass is prone to earthquakes of various intensities; over 40 million hectares is prone to floods; about 8% of the total area is prone to cyclones and 68% of the area is susceptible to drought

• In the decade 1990-2000, an average of about 4,344 people lost their lives and about 30 million people were affected by disasters every year.  The loss in terms of private, community and public assets has been astronomical.

• The United Nations General Assembly, in 1989, declared the decade 1990-2000 as the International Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction with the objective to reduce loss of lives and property and restrict socio-economic damage through concerted international action, especially in developing countries.

• The super cyclone in Orissa in October, 1999 and the Bhuj earthquake in Gujarat in January, 2001 underscored the need to adopt a multi dimensional endeavour involving diverse scientific, engineering, financial and social processes; the need to adopt multi disciplinary and multi sectoral approach and incorporation of risk reduction in the developmental plans and strategies.

• In the federal set up of India, the basic responsibility for undertaking rescue, relief and rehabilitation measures in the event of a disaster is that of the State Governemnt concerned.  At the State level, response, relief and rehabilitation are handled by Departments of Relief & Rehabilitation. 

• Indian Meteorological Department (IMD) is mandated to monitor and give warnings regarding Tropical Cyclone (TC). A National Core Group on Cyclone Monitoring & Mitigation has been constituted. Experts from Indian Meteorological Department, National Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasting, Central Water Commission, National Remote Sensing Agency and Indian Space Research Organisation have been made the Members of the Core Group, besides administrators from the relevant Ministries/Departments and State Governments vulnerable to cyclones.

• Flooding is caused by the inadequate capacity within the banks of the rivers to contain the high flow brought down from the upper catchments due to heavy rainfall.    It is also caused by accumulation of water resulting from heavy spells of rainfall over areas, which have got poor drainage characteristics. Flooding is accentuated by erosion and silting leading to meandering of the rivers in plains and reduction in carrying capacity of the river channel.  It is also aggravated by earthquakes and landslides, leading to changes in river course and obstructions to   flow.   .  

• At present, there are 166 flood forecasting stations on various rivers in the country which includes 134 level forecasting and 32 inflow forecasting stations

• From the experience of managing the past droughts particularly the severe drought of 1987, a number of programmes have been launched by the Government to mitigate the impact of drought in the long run.  These programmes include Drought Prone Area Programme (DPAP), Desert Development Programme (DDP), National Watershed Development Project for Rainfed Areas (NWDPRA), Watershed Development Programme for Shifting Cultivation (WDPSC), Integrated Water Development Project (IWDP), Integrated Afforestation and Eco-development Project Scheme (IAEPS)

• A Disaster Risk Management Programme has been taken up with the assistance from UNDP, USAID and European Union in 169 most hazard prone districts in 17 States including all the 8 North Eastern State. The implementation of the project commenced from October 2002 and was expected to be concluded by December 2007.Under this programme Disaster Management Plans have been prepared for about 3500 villages, 250 Gram Panchayat, 60 blocks and 15 districts. Elected representatives of over 8000 Panchayati Raj Institutions have already been trained, besides imparting training to Members of voluntary organisations. Over 20000 Government functionaries have been trained in disaster mitigation and preparedness at different levels. About 600 engineers and 220 architects have been trained under this programme in vulnerability assessment of lifeline buildings. Training is being imparted to master trainers under the programme. More than 600 master trainers and 1000 teachers have already been trained in different districts in disaster mitigation.  Disaster Management Committees consisting of elected representatives, civil society members, Civil Defence volunteers and Government functionaries have been constituted at all levels including village/urban local body/ward levels. Disaster Management Teams have been constituted in villages and are being imparted training in basic functions of first aid, rescue, evacuation and related issues.

• The National Centre for Disaster Management at the national level has been upgraded and designated as the National Institute of Disaster Management. It is being developed as a Regional Centre of Excellence in Asia. The National Institute of Disaster Management will develop training modules at different levels, undertake training of trainers and organize training programmes for planners, administrators and command functionaries.

• The Geographical Information System (GIS) database is an effective tool for emergency responders to access information in terms of crucial parameters for the disaster-affected areas. The crucial parameters include location of the public facilities, communication links and transportation network at national, state and district levels. 

 

According to [inside]Disaster Management in India—A Status Report (2004)[/inside], Ministry of Home Affairs,
http://www.ndmindia.nic.in/EQProjects/Disaster%20Management%20in%20

India%20-%20A%20Status%20Report%20-%20August%202004.pdf:


• About 60% of the landmass is prone to earthquakes of various intensities; over 40 million hectares is prone to floods; about 8% of the total area is prone to cyclones and 68% of the area is susceptible to drought. In the decade 1990-2000, an average of about 4344 people lost their lives and about 30 million people were affected by disasters every year.

• The super cyclone in Orissa in October, 1999 and the Bhuj earthquake in Gujarat in January, 2001 underscored the need to adopt a multi dimensional endeavour involving diverse scientific, engineering, financial and social processes; the need to adopt multi disciplinary and multi sectoral approach and incorporation of risk reduction in the developmental plans and strategies.
 

According to [inside]Contingency Plan-Drought 2000[/inside],
http://www.ndmindia.nic.in/documents/document.html:

 

• As reported by the State Government of Gujarat, 9449 villages in 155 taluks of 17 out of 25 districts with a population of 250 lakhs were affected. The failure of fodder crop affected livestock population of 71.33 lakhs.  Banaskantha, Jamnagar, Kutch and Patan districts were severely affected. Foodgrain production is estimated to be lower by 29.45% compared to that of last year.  Oilseeds production is estimated to be lower by 49.23% as compared to that of 1999. The crop area under foodgrains, oilseeds and cotton has gone down by 4.27 lakh ha during the last kharif and Rabi seasons.

• 23,406 villages in 26 out of 32 districts with a population of 262 lakhs were reported to have been affected in Rajasthan.  Cattle population of 345.60 lakhs faced shortage of fodder.  Ground water level went down and there was shortage of drinking water.  Foodgrain production was estimated to be less by 22.88% as compared to that of last year and oilseeds production was estimated to be less by 17.20%. The crop area under foodgrains, oilseeds and cotton was estimated to have gone down by 25.97 lakh ha during the last kharif and rabi seasons.
 

According to [inside]Natural Disasters and Crop Insurance[/inside],
http://india.gov.in/citizen/agriculture/natural_schemes.php:

 

• The monsoons play a critical role in determining whether the harvest will be bountiful, average or poor in any given year. Excess rainfall leads to the overflowing of rivers, streams and lakes. This extra water fills low-lying fields and creates a flood situation. Floods destroy not only lives and property but also the entire crop production work carried out in the summer. Certain crops cannot bear excess water and they die leaving the farmer with a burden of debt. The National Commission on Floods has assessed the flood prone area in India to be around 12 per cent of the total area.

• An All-Risk Comprehensive Crop Insurance Scheme (CCIS) for major crops was introduced in 1985, coinciding with the introduction of the Seventh-Five-Year Plan. The National Agricultural Insurance Scheme or NAIS subsequently replaced it in 1999-2000. The NAIS was originally managed by the General Insurance Company. Later on, a new body called the Agriculture Insurance Company of India was formed to implement this scheme.