Education

Education

In the present survey, NSSO collected data on educational particulars like educational level attained - both general and technical, current attendance in educational institution, type of institution, vocational training received/ being received, etc. from the household members.

Literacy Rate in the Population

•In India, the overall literacy rate was 67 percent during 2009-10, and it was 62 percent in the rural areas and 79 percent in the urban areas.

•During 2009-10, in India, in as many as 20 percent of households in the rural areas and 6 percent in the urban areas, there was not a single member in the age-group 15 years and above who could read and write a simple message with understanding. This means that all the adult members in those households were illiterate. Further, as high as 40 per cent of the rural households and 15 per cent of the urban households had no literate female member.

•In the rural areas, 63 per cent of the households had at least one literate member of age 15 years and above in 1993-94; the proportion increased to 68 percent in 1999-2000, to 74 per cent in 2004-05 and 80 per cent in 2009-10. The corresponding proportions were about 86 percent, 88 percent, 92 percent and 94 percent, respectively, in the urban areas.

•About 71 percent of rural males and 53 percent of rural females were literate. The literacy rates among their urban counterparts were much higher at 84 percent and 74 percent, respectively.

•The literacy rate increased steadily over the years for all the categories of persons. Over a period of around 27 years since 1983, the literacy rate increased by 26 percentage points from 45 per cent for rural males, 31 percentage points from 22 per cent for rural females, 15 percentage points from 69 per cent for urban males, and by 22 percentage points from 52 per cent for urban females.

Literacy rate for persons of age 7 years and above

•About 73 per cent among persons of age 7 years above were literate in India during 2009-10.The proportion was 69 percent in the rural areas and 85 percent in the urban areas. As usual, the rate is found to be higher among the males (82 percent) than that among the females (64 percent).

Educational Level of the literates

•About 44 per cent of the literates of age 15 years and above were educated, i.e., with level of education secondary and above (including diploma/ certificate course), and about 11 per cent of the persons of age 15 years and above were graduates and above.

•Among all the categories of persons, that is, rural male, rural female, urban male and urban female, the proportion of the educated was the highest among urban males (63 per cent), followed by the urban females (58 per cent) and rural males (38 percent), and it was the lowest among rural females (30 percent).

•The proportion of persons with level of education graduate and above was also the highest among urban male (22 percent) and the lowest among rural female (only 4 percent).

Educational level and household type

•In the rural areas, the proportion of not-literates was the highest among persons belonging to the household type rural labour (46 per cent) and was the lowest among the household type others (26 percent).

•In the urban areas, the proportion of not-literates was the highest among the persons belonging to the household type casual labour (35 percent) and the lowest among the household type regular wage/salaried employees (11 percent).

•The proportion of the educated persons was found to be the highest for the household type others in both rural (42 percent) and urban (65 percent) areas.

Technical Education

•In India, among the persons of age 15 years and above, only 2 per cent had technical degrees or diplomas or certificates. The proportion was only 1 per cent in the rural areas and 5 per cent in the urban areas. Moreover, the rate among females was lower than that among males-the rates being nearly 1 per cent in the rural and about 3 percent in the urban areas for females, and nearly 1 per cent in the rural and about 7 percent in the urban areas for males.

•The distribution of persons by level of attainment of technical education also reveals that among those who had technical education, about 17 percent had degree in technical education of graduate level or above and the remaining had some certificate or diploma in technical education - about 55 per cent below graduate level and 28 percent at graduate and above level.

•The proportion of persons with technical degrees of graduate level or above was much higher in the urban areas (21 per cent) than in the rural areas (8 per cent). The proportion is also much higher among males than among females. Among females, this proportion was 4 per cent (as against 9 percent for males) in the rural areas and was 16 per cent (as against 23 per cent for males) in the urban areas.

Current Attendance in educational institution

•It is found that about 54 percent of the people in the age-group 5-29 years were currently attending educational institution. The said proportion was higher for males at 58 percent than for females (50 percent). The current attendance rate is found to be the highest among urban males (59 percent) and the lowest among the rural females (49 percent).

•Among persons who were currently not attending, about 25 per cent never attended any educational institution. It may be noted that this proportion is found to be the lowest among the urban males (13 per cent) and the highest among rural females (34 per cent).

Age-Specific Current Attendance Rate

•Current attendance rate is much higher for the age-group 5-14 years compared to the age-groups 15-19, 20-24 and 25-29 years. This is due to reason that discontinued or drop-out cases increase as the age of person increases. While the overall current attendance rate was 54 percent for the age-group 5-29 years, it was 87 per cent for the age-group 5-14 years, 58 percent for the age-group 15-19 years, 18 per cent for the age-group 20-24 years and 3 percent for the age- group 25-29 years.

Current Attendance by Type of Institution

•Government institutions accounted for 62 per cent of the students (i.e., those who were attending), followed by private unaided institutions (20 per cent), private aided institutions (13 per cent) and local body institutions (only 5 per cent).

•In rural areas, 70 per cent of the students were attending some Government institutions compared to 40 per cent in the urban areas.

•In the rural areas it is observed that, while among the male students, 73 per cent attended government or local body institutions, among the female students about 77 per cent attended government or local body institutions. The corresponding proportions in the urban areas were 43 per cent and 46 percent, respectively.

•In the rural areas, among the major states, the proportion of students attending government institutions was the highest in Chhattisgarh (97 percent) and lowest in Maharashtra (32 percent).

•The share of Government institutions in the total number of students, in the urban areas, is found to be the highest in Assam (76 per cent) and lowest in Maharashtra (23 per cent).

Type of institution and level of education

•In rural areas, among males, 72 per cent were attending primary level of education in government institutions followed by 16 per cent of males who were attending primary level of education in private unaided institutions and 67 per cent of males were attending secondary level of education in government institutions followed by 15 per cent of males who were attending secondary level of education in private aided institutions.

•In case of rural females, we see that 76 percent of the students were attending primary level of education in government institutions followed by 14 percent of the students who were attending primary level of education in private unaided institutions while for secondary level of education, 71 per cent of students were attending government institutions followed by 13 per cent of students who were attending private aided institutions.

•In urban areas, 37 per cent of males were attending primary level of education in government institutions against 38 per cent attending private unaided institutions and 41 per cent of males were attending secondary level of education in government institutions against 27 per cent of student attending secondary level of education in private unaided institutions.

•For urban females the picture is almost the same. 39 per cent of females were attending primary level of education in government institutions against 36 per cent attending private unaided institutions and 46 per cent of females were attending secondary level of education in government institutions and 26 percent of students were attending secondary level of education in private unaided institutions.

Gross and Net attendance ratio*

•In primary, middle, secondary and higher secondary level the Gross attendance ratios were 99 percent, 89 percent, 91 percent and 61 percent respectively. The picture is almost the same in rural and urban areas.

•In India the Net attendance ratio was 78 percent, 56 percent, 47 percent and 33 percent for primary, middle, secondary and higher secondary level of attendance, respectively.

•Among the major states, in rural areas, for primary level of education, Uttarakhand showed the maximum Net attendance ratio (93 per cent) followed by Jammu & Kashmir (90 per cent) while Bihar and Jharkhand showed the minimum Net attendance ratio (63 per cent each). For secondary level of education, in rural areas, Kerala showed the highest Net attendance ratio (77 per cent) followed by Karnataka (69 per cent) while Rajasthan showed the minimum Net attendance ratio (31 per cent) followed by Bihar and Madhya Pradesh (33 per cent each).

•Among the major states, in urban areas, for primary level of education, Uttarakhand showed the maximum Net attendance ratio (87 per cent) followed by Haryana and Himachal Pradesh (86 per cent each) while Bihar showed the minimum Net attendance ratio (68 per cent). For secondary level of education, in urban areas, Kerala showed the highest Net attendance ratio (81 per cent) followed by Karnataka (78 per cent) and Rajasthan showed the minimum Net attendance ratio (32 per cent) followed by Uttarakhand (35 per cent).

* The Gross attendance ratio for a particular level of education has been defined as the ratio of number of persons with current attendance in that particular level and estimated persons in a specified age-group.

* The Net attendance ratio for a particular level of education has been defined as the ratio of number of persons belonging to a particular age-group with current attendance in that particular level and estimated persons in that specified age-group.

Reason for Not Currently Attending any educational institution

•Ever attended persons: In the rural areas, about 62 per cent of males who were currently not attending any educational institution reported the reason ‘to supplement household income' and in the urban areas it was 66 percent of males. The reason ‘to attend domestic chores' was reported by 46 per cent of females in the rural areas and 47 per cent of females in the urban areas. About 13 per cent in the rural areas and 9 per cent in the urban areas considered ‘education not necessary' and therefore, they were not currently attending any educational institution. It may be noted that about 23 per cent of persons, in rural areas and 26 per cent of persons in urban areas, reported ‘others' as the cause for not attending any educational institution, that is for these persons, some reasons other than the specified ones in the survey, had been the cause for not attending.

•Never attended persons: Among the specified reasons, the highest proportion of persons reported ‘education not considered necessary' as the reason for not attending an educational institution - the proportion being 23 percent in both rural and urban areas. Moreover, about 8 percent in the rural areas and 5 percent in the urban areas reported that they never attended any educational institution as the schools were too far. It has also been observed that about 38 to 40 per cent of persons reported ‘others' had been the cause for never attending any educational institution.

 



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