• Nearly 6 percent of rural households and 29 percent of urban household possessed computer. In India, among households with at least one member of age 14 years and above, nearly 27 percent had internet access in the survey year, 2014. The proportions were 16 percent among rural households and 49 percent of urban households **
• In India nearly 85 percent of the students in age-group 15-29 years were pursuing general education. Nearly 12.6 percent and 2.4 percent students in age-group 15-29 years were attending technical/ professional and vocational courses respectively **
• As per 2014 ASER report, 2014 is the sixth year in a row that enrollment levels are 96% or higher for the 6-14 age group. The proportion of children currently not in school remains at 3.3%. Although enrollment levels are very high for the age group covered by the Right to Education Act (i.e. 6 to 14 years), the proportion of 15 to 16 year olds not enrolled in school is substantial. Nationally, for rural areas, 15.9% of boys and 17.3% of girls in this age group are currently out of school. In some states the proportion of girls (age group 11-14) out of school remains greater than 8% such as Rajasthan (12.1%) and Uttar Pradesh (9.2%)*$
• Overall, the situation with basic reading continues to be extremely disheartening in India. In 2014, in Std III, only a fourth of all children can read a Std II text fluently. This number rises to just under half in Std V. Even in Std VIII, close to 75% children can read Std II level text (which implies that 25% still cannot)*$
• Looking over a five to eight year period, the ASER 2014 concludes that math levels have declined in almost every state. Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh are the exceptions where the situation has been more or less the same for the past several years *$
• In India, the richest young women have already achieved universal literacy but based on current trends, the poorest are projected to only do so around 2080. Children who learn less are more likely to leave school early. In India, children who achieved lower scores in mathematics at age 12 were more than twice as likely to drop out by age 15 than those who performed better $$
• Of all schools visited in 2013, percentage of schools which have drinking water available and useable is 73.8%, toilets available and useable is 62.6%, girls' toilet available and useable is 53.3%, library available and books being used is 40.7%, kitchen shed in school available is 87.0%, and mid day meal served on day of visit is 87.2%. The proportion of schools that comply with RTE pupil-teacher ratio (PTR) norms has increased every year, from 38.9% in 2010 to 45.3% in 2013 $
• Percentage of children (age group 6-14) enrolled in private schools is 29% in 2013. Private school enrolment figures were 28.3% in 2012. This number has risen from 18.7% in 2006 $
• In 2010, 33.2% children of Std. III in government schools could at least do subtraction, as compared to 47.8% in private schools. The gap between children in government and private schools has widened over time. In 2013, 18.9% of Std. III students in government schools were able to do basic subtraction or more, as compared to 44.6% of Std. III children in private schools $
• In the rural areas, the proportion of not-literates was the highest among persons belonging to the household type rural labour (46 per cent) and was the lowest among the household type others (26 percent) *
• In rural areas, 70 per cent of the students were attending some Government institutions compared to 40 per cent in the urban areas *
• Gross enrolment ratio (GER is the total enrolment in a specific level of education, regardless of age, expressed as a percentage of the eligible official school-age population corresponding to the same level of education in a given school year) for primary schools has improved from 104 percent in 2005-06 to 115 percent in 2009-10 €
• The percentage of trained teachers stood at 89 percent for Higher Secondary Schools/ Inter Colleges, 90 percent for High /Post Basic Schools, 88 percent for Middle/ Sr. Basic School and 86 percent for Pre-Primary/ Primary/ Jr. Basic School, as per Statistics of School Education 2009-10 €
** 71st round NSS report:
Key Indicators of Social Consumption in India Education (published in
June 2015), please click here to access the full report; please click here to read the summary of findings
* NSS report no. 551 (66/10/6) titled Status of Education and Vocational Training in India (66th Round), July 2009-June 2010, published in March 2013, MoSPI, http://mospi.nic.in/Mospi_New/upload/nss_report_551.pdf
$$ 11th UNESCO Education for All Global Monitoring Report 2013-14 entitled Teaching and learning: Achieving quality for all (please click link 1, link 2 and link 3 to download)
$ ASER 2013 report (click link 1, link 2 to download)
€ Children in India 2012-A Statistical Appraisal, Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation, GoI, http://www.im4change.org/docs/659Children_in_India_2012.pdf
Please note that information about Right to Education and many more related themes is also given under "Empowerment" section of the im4change website. For best results please check out both sections. Click here: http://www.im4change.org/articles.php?articleId=60
The 71st round National Sample Survey on “Social Consumption: Education” was conducted during January to June 2014. The information in the survey was collected from 36,479 households in rural areas and 29,447 households in urban areas during the 71st round.
The key findings of the [inside]71st round NSS report: Key Indicators of Social Consumption in India Education (published in June 2015)[/inside] are as follows (please click here to access the full report; please click here to read the summary of findings):
I. Literacy rates
• Literacy rate among persons of age 7 years and above in India was 75%. In rural areas, literacy rate was 71% compared to 86% in urban areas.
• Differences in literacy rate among persons of age 7 years and above was observed with male literacy rate being substantially higher (83%) than female literacy rate (67%).
• Adult literacy (age 15 years and above) rate in India was around 71%. For adults also, literacy rate in rural areas was lower than that in urban areas. In rural areas, adult literacy rate was 64% as compared to 84% in urban areas.
II. Accessibility of nearest primary, upper primary and secondary school
• No significant difference between rural and urban India existed in terms of distance for physical access to primary schooling. In both rural and urban areas, nearly 99% households reported availability of primary school within 2 kms from the house.
• For accessing educational institutions providing higher level of learning, say upper primary or secondary, a lower proportion of households in rural areas compared to the households in urban areas reported existence of such facilities within 2 kms.
• Nearly 86% of rural households and 96% of urban households reported upper primary schools within a distance of 2 kms from the house while nearly 60% of rural households and 91% of urban households reported secondary schools at such a distance.
III. Completed level of education among persons of age 5 years and above
• The proportion of persons having completed higher level of education, say, graduation and above, was more in the urban areas than in the rural areas.
• In the rural areas, nearly 4.5% of males and 2.2% of females completed education level of ‘graduation and above’ while in the urban areas 17% of males and 13% of females completed this level of education
IV. Attendance and enrolment
• In both rural and urban areas, a very small proportion of persons (nearly 1 per cent) in the age group 5-29 years, were currently enrolled but not attending educational institutions.
• In rural areas 58.7% of males and 53% of females in the 5-29 age-group were currently attending educational institution. In urban areas, the percentages being 57% for males and 54.6% for females.
V. Attendance ratios
• Gross Attendance Ratio of or level ‘primary’ was nearly 100% for both males and females in rural and urban areas.
• Gross Attendance Ratio at level ‘primary to higher secondary’ was 91% and 88% for rural males and females respectively, marginally lower as compared to 93% for both males and females in urban sector.
• Net Attendance Ratio in India at primary level was 84% for male and 83 % for female children in the age-group 6-10 years, the official age-group for Classes I-V.
• There was no major rural-urban or male-female disparity at all-India level till elementary level (primary and upper primary) in the Net Attendance Ratio.
VI. Current attendance by type of education
• In India nearly 85% of the students in age-group 15-29 years were pursuing general education.
• Nearly 12.6% and 2.4% students in age-group 15-29 years were attending technical/ professional and vocational courses respectively.
VII. Attendance by type of courses
• Among the male students pursuing general education, 46% were pursuing humanities as compared to 54% of the female students, 35% of the male students were pursuing science compared to 28% female students and 20% of the male students were pursuing commerce compared to 18% of the female students.
• Among the male students pursing technical/ professional education, 46% were pursuing engineering compared to 29% of the female students and 4% of the male students were pursuing medicine (including nursing) compared to 14% of the female students.
VIII. Type of institution attended
• In rural areas, majority of the students were attending government institutions predominantly up to higher secondary levels, whereas a completely different picture was observed in urban areas.
• In rural areas, 72% of the students at primary level, 76% at upper primary level and 64% at secondary & higher secondary level attended Government institutions, while in urban areas, 31% at primary level, 38% at upper primary level as well as secondary & higher secondary level, attended Government institutions.
IX. Incentives received
• Almost 94% students from rural areas and 87% students from urban areas at primary level studying in government institutions were receiving free education.
• At upper primary level, 89% students in rural areas and 80% students in urban areas, studying in government institutions were receiving free education.
• At secondary and higher secondary level, 58% students in rural areas and 52% students in urban areas, studying in government institutions, received free education.
• 63% of students at primary level and 62% of students at upper primary level received mid-day meal.
X. Private coaching
• At the all-India level, nearly 26% of the students were taking private coaching.
XI. Students staying in hostel
• Nearly 5% of the students in India were staying in hostel for study.
XII. Private expenditure on education
• Average expenditure (Rs.) per student incurred and/or to be incurred during the current academic session was nearly Rs. 6788 for general education, Rs. 62841 for technical/ professional (except vocational) and Rs. 27676 for vocational course.
• At primary level, expenditure per student in urban areas was Rs. 10083, more than four times than that in rural areas (Rs. 2811).
• Average expenditure on technical education in private aided & unaided institutions varied between nearly 1.5-2.5 times of that in government institutions.
• Nearly 46% of the expenditure for general education and 73% of the expenditure for technical education was on course fee.
• For students pursuing general courses, 15% was spent on private coaching as against 3% for students pursuing technical/ professional education (including vocational).
XIII. Never-enrolment and discontinuance of education
• In India, nearly 11% of the persons of age 5-29 years in rural areas and 6% in urban areas never enrolled in any educational institution.
• In India, proportion of persons in the age group 5-29 years dropping out/ discontinued studies were nearly 33% in rural areas and 38% in urban areas.
• For the males of age 5-29 years, engagement in economic activities was the most common reason for dropping out (30% in rural areas and 34% in urban areas), whereas for the females, the dominant reason was engagement in domestic activities (33% in rural areas and 23% in urban areas).
• In rural areas, the major reason for never enrolment for persons of age 5-29 years was ‘not interested in education’ (33% male and 27% female) while in urban areas, nearly 33% males and 30% females in the age group 5-29 years never enrolled because of ‘financial constraints’.
XIV. Access to computer and internet
• Nearly 6% of rural households and 29% of urban household possessed computer.
• In India, among households with at least one member of age 14 years and above, nearly 27% had internet access in the survey year, 2014. The proportions were 16% among rural households and 49% of urban households.
• Among persons of age 14-29 years, nearly 18% in rural areas and 49% in urban areas were able to operate a computer.
The [inside]Annual Status of Education Report 2014 (released in January 2015)[/inside] is based on a survey carried out in 16,497 villages, covering 341,070 households and 569,229 children in 577 rural districts of India.
The key findings of the ASER 2014 report are as follows (Please click link1, link2 & link3 to access):
Enrollment levels and Out-of-school proportions
• 2014 is the sixth year in a row that enrollment levels are 96% or higher for the 6-14 age group. The proportion of children currently not in school remains at 3.3%.
• In some states the proportion of girls (age group 11-14) out of school remains greater than 8%. These states are Rajasthan (12.1%) and Uttar Pradesh (9.2%).
• Although enrollment levels are very high for the age group covered by the Right to Education Act (i.e. 6 to 14 years), the proportion of 15 to 16 year olds not enrolled in school is substantial. Nationally, for rural areas, 15.9% of boys and 17.3% of girls in this age group are currently out of school.
Enrollment in private schools
• In 2014, 30.8% of all 6-14 year old children in rural India are enrolled in private schools. This number is up slightly from 29% in 2013.
• As in previous years, in each age group, a higher proportion of boys go to private schools as compared to girls. In 2014, in the age group 7-10 years, 35.6% of boys are enrolled in private schools as compared to 27.7% of girls. For the age group of 11-14 years, 33.5% of boys are in private schools as compared to 25.9% of girls.
• Five states in India now have private school enrollment rates in the elementary stage that are greater than 50%. These are Manipur (73.3%), Kerala (62.2%), Haryana (54.2%), Uttar Pradesh (51.7%), and Meghalaya (51.7%).
• Overall, the situation with basic reading continues to be extremely disheartening in India. In 2014, in Std III, only a fourth of all children can read a Std II text fluently. This number rises to just under half in Std V. Even in Std VIII, close to 75% children can read Std II level text (which implies that 25% still cannot).
• Some very small improvements in reading are visible in the last few years. For example, the proportion of Std V children who can read at least a Std II level text has inched upwards from 46.8% in 2012 to 47% in 2013 and to 48.1% in 2014. 38.7% of Std III children could read at least a Std I level text in 2012. This number is slightly higher at 40.2% in 2014.
• In some states, reading levels have improved since last year. For example, in 2014 a higher proportion of children in Std V in Himachal Pradesh, Haryana, Bihar, Odisha and Karnataka can read at least a Std II level text than was the case last year. Tamil Nadu shows major gains in reading over last year for Std V.
• In some states, like Bihar, Assam, Jharkhand, Chhattisgarh, Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra there are visible declines in reading levels over the last 5-6 years.
Poor outcome in Mathematics
• The All India (rural) figures for basic arithmetic have remained virtually unchanged over the last few years. In 2012, 26.3% of Std III children could do a two digit subtraction. This number is at 25.3% in 2014. For Std V children, the ability to do division has increased slightly from 24.8% in 2012 to 26.1% in 2014.
• The percentage of children in Std II who still cannot recognize numbers up to 9 has increased over time, from 11.3% in 2009 to 19.5% in 2014.
• The ability to do division among Std VIII students has been dropping since 2010. The proportion of Std VIII students who could correctly do a three digit by one digit division problem was 68.3% in 2010. This number has dropped to 44.1% in 2014.
• Looking over a five to eight year period, it is clear that math levels have declined in almost every state. Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh are the exceptions where the situation has been more or less the same for the past several years.
English reading ability
• Children’s ability to read English is relatively unchanged in lower primary grades. In 2014, about 25% of children enrolled in Std V could read simple English sentences. This number is virtually unchanged since 2009.
• A decline is visible in upper primary grades. For example, in 2009, 60.2% of children in Std VIII could read simple sentences in English but in 2014, this figure is 46.8%.
• In 2014, of those who can read words (regardless of grade), roughly 60% could explain the meanings of the words read. Of those who can read sentences, 62.2% in Std V could explain the meaning of the sentences.
ASER 2014 visited 15,206 government schools with primary sections. Of these 8,844 were primary schools and 6,362 were upper primary schools which also had primary sections.
Teacher and child attendance
• In 2014, ASER data indicates that 71.4% of enrolled children in primary schools and 71.1% of enrolled children in upper primary schools were present on the day of the visit. In 2013, these figures were 70.7% in primary schools and 71.8% in upper primary schools.
• States like Himachal Pradesh, Punjab, Uttarakhand, Gujarat, Maharashtra, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Kerala and Tamil Nadu have children's attendance levels that range from 80 to 90%. But in states like Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, West Bengal, Jharkhand, and Madhya Pradesh, attendance rates are much lower and range from 50 to 60%.
• Children’s attendance both in primary and upper primary schools was higher in 2009 as compared to 2014. In 2009, attendance was at 74.3% in primary schools and 77% in upper primary schools.
• Since 2009, there has been a small decrease in the attendance rates of teachers. For primary schools, in 2014, 85% of appointed teachers were present in school on the day of the visit as compared to 89.1% in 2009. The 2014 figure for teacher attendance in upper primary schools is 85.8% as against 88.6% in 2009.
“Small schools” in the government primary school sector
• Of the government primary schools visited in 2014, over one third are “small schools” with a total enrollment of 60 children or less. In 2009, the percentage of government primary schools visited that were “small” was 26.1%.
Improvement in school facilities
• The percentage of schools complying with RTE mandated pupil-teacher ratios has increased from 45.3% last year to 49.3% in 2014. In 2010, this figure was 38.9%.
• With respect to drinking water provision and availability, drinking water was available in 75.6% of the schools that were visited. In 2010, this figure was 72.7%. In four states (Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, Gujarat and Himachal Pradesh), drinking water was available in more than 85% of schools.
• ASER records whether toilets are available and useable on the day of the visit. Since 2010, there has been significant progress in the availability of useable toilets. Nationally in 2014, 65.2% of schools visited had toilet facilities that were useable. In 2013, this figure was 62.6% and in 2010, it was 47.2%). The proportion of schools visited where girls’ toilets were available and useable has gone up from 32.9% in 2010 to 53.3% in 2013 to 55.7% in 2014. In four states, more than 75% of schools visited had useable girls’ toilets. These states are Gujarat, Kerala, Himachal Pradesh and Haryana.
• There is a small increase in the availability of computers in the schools visited. The 2014 figure stands at 19.6%, as compared to 15.8% in 2010. Several states stand out in this regard. In Gujarat, 81.3% of schools visited had computers; this number was 89.8% in Kerala, 46.3% in Maharashtra and 62.4% in Tamil Nadu.
• The proportion of schools with library books has increased substantially, from 62.6% in 2010 to 78.1% in 2014. In about 40.7% of schools that were visited, children were seen using library books as compared to 37.9% in 2010.
According to the [inside]11th UNESCO Education for All Global Monitoring Report 2013-14[/inside] entitled Teaching and learning: Achieving quality for all (please click link 1, link 2 and link 3 to download):
• Ethiopia and India have contributed significantly to the overall reduction in out-of-school numbers since 2006. In 2011, India had out-of-school population of 16.74 lakhs whereas in 2006 its out-of-school population was 61.84 lakhs. India is among the top 10 countries with the highest out-of-school populations.
• In India, despite increased resources for Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan, allocations are still not sufficiently reaching the states that are in need. In 2012/13, total expenditure per elementary pupil from both central and state funds was still much lower in states where education indicators were worse than in the states with some of the best education indicators. In one of India’s wealthier states, Kerala, education spending per pupil was about US$685. Similarly, in Himachal Pradesh it was US$542. By contrast, in West Bengal it was US$127 and in Bihar US$100.
• Increased financial allocations are still insufficient to translate into improved learning outcomes, suggesting that far more needs to be done. In Bihar, for example, where spending rose by 61% between 2010/11 and 2012/13 but remained low, only 48% of Standard 3 to 5 students could read a Standard 1 text in 2012 (Accountability Initiative, 2013).
• India has by far the largest population of illiterate adults, 287 million, amounting to 37% of the global total. Its literacy rate rose from 48% in 1991 to 63% in 2006, the latest year it has available data, but population growth cancelled the gains so there was no change in the number of illiterate adults.
• In India, the majority of tax revenue forgone is due to exemptions from custom and excise duties. The revenue lost to exemptions came to the equivalent of 5.7% of GDP in 2012/13. If 20% of this had been earmarked for education, the sector would have received an additional US$22.5 billion in 2013, increasing funding by almost 40% compared with the current education budget.
• India decreased its spending on education from 4.4% of GNP in 1999 to 3.3% in 2010, jeopardizing the huge progress it has made in getting more children into school, and its prospects for improving its poor quality of education. India, which faces huge challenges in improving the quality of its education, spent 10% of its government budget on education in 2011, a reduction from 13% in 1999.
Education and its advantages
• Women in India with at least secondary education were 30 percentage points more likely to have a say over their choice of spouse than their less educated peers. In India, reducing the gender literacy gap by 40% increased the probability of women standing for state assembly election by 16% and the share of votes that they received by 13%. Education helps overcome gender biases in political behaviour to deepen democracy.
• In 2012, 1.41 million children under 5 died in India. If all women had completed primary education, the under-5 mortality rate would have been 13% lower in India. If all women had completed secondary education, it would have been 61% lower in India.
• In northern India, analysis based on the Annual Health Survey and the census in 2011 showed that female literacy was strongly linked to child mortality, even after taking into account access to reproductive and child health services. An increase in the female literacy rate from 58%, the current average in the districts surveyed, to 100% would lead to a reduction in the under-5 mortality rate from 81 to 55 deaths per 1,000 live births (Kumar et al., 2012).
• In India, literate people with schooling up to lower secondary level were more than twice as likely as illiterate people to know that mosquitoes are the transmitters of malaria. They were also about 45% more likely to know that malaria can be prevented by draining stagnant water (Sharma et al., 2007).
• In rural India, mothers’ education has been shown to improve their mobility and their ability to make decisions on seeking care when a child is sick – and infant children of women with such increased autonomy are taller for their age (Shroff et al., 2011).
• Education contributes to other forms of political participation. In rural areas of the states of Madhya Pradesh and Rajasthan in India, education was positively associated with campaigning, discussing electoral issues, attending rallies and establishing contacts with local government officials (Krishna, 2006). In the state of West Bengal in India, a survey of 85 villages showed that the higher the level of household education, the more likely people were to attend the biannual gram sabha, or village forum, and, especially, to ask questions at the meetings (Bardhan et al., 2009).
• In parts of India, animosity among ethnic and linguistic groups can spark violence, so there is an urgent need to increase tolerance through education. Those with secondary education were 19% less likely to express intolerance towards people speaking a different language than those with less than primary education.
• The education level of a woman’s spouse can have a key role in her fertility choices. In India, the likelihood that the fertility preferences of a woman with primary education were taken into account rose from 65% for those whose husbands had no education to at least 85% for those whose husbands had at least secondary education. Education helps prevent the abhorrent practice of infanticide in India, where strong preferences over the sex of the child have been linked to millions of killings of children. While 84% of women with no education would prefer to have a boy if they could only have one child, only 50% of women with at least secondary education would have such a preference.
• In India, the richest young women have already achieved universal literacy but based on current trends, the poorest are projected to only do so around 2080. In rural India, there are wide disparities between richer and poorer states, but even within richer states, the poorest girls perform at much lower levels.
• In the wealthier states of Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu, most rural children reached grade 5 in 2012. However, only 44% of these children in the grade 5 age group in Maharashtra and 53% in Tamil Nadu could perform a two-digit subtraction. Among rich, rural children in these states, girls performed better than boys, with around two out of three girls able to do the calculations. Yet despite Maharashtra’s relative wealth, poor, rural girls there performed only slightly better than their counterparts in the poorer state of Madhya Pradesh.
• Widespread poverty in Madhya Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh affects the chance of staying in school until grade 5. In Uttar Pradesh, 70% of poor children make it to grade 5 while almost all children from rich households are able to do so. Similarly, in Madhya Pradesh, 85% of poor children reach grade 5, compared with 96% of rich children.
• Once in school, poor girls have a lower chance of learning the basics. No more than one in five poor girls in Madhya Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh are able to do basic mathematics. The huge disparities within India point to a failure to target support adequately towards those who need it most.
• Children who learn less are more likely to leave school early. In India, children who achieved lower scores in mathematics at age 12 were more than twice as likely to drop out by age 15 than those who performed better.
• Where gender-responsive curricula have been developed, as in projects in Mumbai, test scores measuring attitudes on several gender-related issues improved.
• Digital Study Hall is a small, innovative project that uses ICT to improve the accessibility and quality of education for disadvantaged children in India. An evaluation of four schools in Uttar Pradesh state in India found that, after eight months, 72% of pupils had improved test scores; of these, 44% had an increase greater than 150% and almost a third improved by more than 200%.
• A study in India evaluated computer-assisted mathematics programmes, implemented both as a stand-alone substitute for regular teaching in an in-school programme and as an after-school programme to reinforce teachers’ curriculum delivery. The results showed that the in-school programme, far from leading to improved scores, actually caused pupils to learn significantly less than they otherwise would have done. By contrast, using the after-school programme to supplement regular teaching brought increased learning gains, particularly for low achievers.
• In rural India, an after-school programme for children from low income families used mobile phone games to help them learn English. This resulted in significant learning gains in tests of the spelling of common English nouns, particularly for children in higher grades who had stronger foundation skills.
• In the Indian state of Tamil Nadu, primary students learn at their own pace, using self-evaluation cards that can be administered alone or with the help of another child; teachers strategically pair more advanced learners with less advanced ones for certain exercises. Overall, children’s self-confidence has grown as a result of the approach, and learning achievement in the state is high.
• Small class sizes also enable teachers at private schools to interact more with their students. In Andhra Pradesh, India, 82% of teachers regularly corrected exercises given to children, compared with only 40% in government schools.
• In India, schools with trained female community volunteers helped increase the proportion of children able to do two-digit addition. While only 5% of pupils were able to carry out simple subtraction at the start of the study, 52% could by the end of the year, compared with 39% in other classes.
• In India, teacher unions have a major influence on state legislatures and governments. In Uttar Pradesh, this led to higher pay and security of tenure for civil service teachers, but also to neglect of teacher absenteeism and to low quality of teaching.
• In the Indian state of Bihar, government school teachers received training to use new learning materials adapted to the local context. Combine with other initiatives, including using village volunteers to provide children with support outside school hours, the programme increased achievement.
• In Rajasthan state, India, the School and Teacher Education Reform Programme, established in 2010, aims to move schooling away from rote learning and towards teaching based on understanding and grounded in the local context of the child. In an innovative move to build legitimacy and ownership among teacher educators, a group made up of faculty from state, private and NGO teacher training colleges and universities was established to help develop teacher education and school curricula and materials.
• In India, several states no longer recruit civil service teachers, and contract teachers now account for 16% of government primary school teachers. In 2007, contract teachers received 14% of the salary paid to regular teachers in West Bengal, 23% in Andhra Pradesh and 25% in Rajasthan.
• In India, most studies find that employing contract teachers does not lead to learning outcomes that are lower than those achieved by civil service teachers, showing that contract teachers can be at least as effective as civil service teachers. However, achievement remains undesirably low in India regardless of the type of teacher a student is taught by.
• Across India, absenteeism varied from 15% in Maharashtra and 17% in Gujarat – two richer states – to 38% in Bihar and 42% in Jharkhand, two of the poorest states. There is much evidence of the harm done to students’ learning because of teacher absenteeism. In India, for example, a 10% increase in teacher absence was associated with 1.8% lower student attendance.
• In India, only one head teacher in 3,000 government schools reported dismissing a teacher for repeated absence. By contrast, 35 private school head teachers, out of 600 surveyed, reported having dismissed teachers for this reason.
• In India, illness accounted for just 10% of absences. In India, official non-teaching duties accounted for only 4%. In India, teacher absenteeism was lower when teachers were born in the district where they worked, where the school had better infrastructure and where students’ parents were literate.
• Combining monitoring with incentives could be more beneficial than penalties for tackling absenteeism. In 2003–2006, in 120 NGO non-formal education centres in rural Rajasthan, photographs were taken of teachers and students every day at the beginning and end of class to monitor attendance and the length of the school day. Teachers’ pay depended on the number of days they taught at least eight students for at least six hours. Over the period of the programme, teacher absenteeism fell from 44% to 21%, showing that linking pay with attendance can be effective. However, it is less clear whether camera-based monitoring of attendance could be scaled up and extended beyond NGO education programmes.
• Greater involvement of parents and the community in school management had limited impact on teacher attendance in India and no impact on student achievement.
• In rural India, government school teachers have been found to spend 75% of their time at school teaching, compared with 90% for private school teachers (Kingdon and Banerji, 2009).
• Based on current trends, the Report projects that it will take until 2072 for all the poorest young women in developing countries to be literate.
• The Report calculates that the cost of 250 million children around the world not learning the basics translates into a loss of an estimated $129 billion. In total, 37 countries are losing at least half the amount they spend on primary education because children are not learning. By contrast, the Report shows that ensuring an equal, quality education for all can generate huge economic rewards, increasing a country’s gross domestic product per capita by 23 per cent over 40 years.
• Ten per cent of global spending on primary education is being lost on poor quality education that is failing to ensure that children learn.
• The report warns that without attracting and adequately training enough teachers the learning crisis will last for several generations and hit the disadvantaged hardest.
• In order to improve the quality of education, between 2011 and 2015, South and West Asia needs to recruit an additional 1 million additional teachers per year to reach a ratio of 32 pupils per teacher in lower secondary education. However, teachers also need training. In a third of countries analysed by the Report, less than three-quarters of existing primary school teachers are trained to national standards.
• The Report makes the following recommendations: 1. New education goals after 2015 must include an explicit commitment to equity so that every child has an equal chance of an education; 2. New goals after 2015 must ensure that every child is in school and learning the basics; 3. Ensure the best teachers reach the learners who need them most.
The Annual Status of Education Report (ASER-rural) is an annual household survey to assess children’s schooling status and basic learning levels in reading and arithmetic. The 9th ASER 2013 report, facilitated by PRATHAM, covers 550 districts, 15941 villages, 14724 schools, 3.27 lakh households and 5.7 lakh children in the age group 3-16 years.
According to the [inside]ASER 2013 report[/inside] (click link 1, link 2 to download):
Schooling: Enrollment Attendance & School Facilities
• The percentage of children (age group 6-14) enrolled in school is very high at 96.7% in 2013. The enrollment figures have been 96% or more since 2009. There is hardly any gender difference between the proportions of children who are still out of school.
• At the all India level, the proportion of girls in the age group 11 to 14 who are not enrolled in school dropped from 6% in 2012 to 5.5% in 2013. The greatest progress is visible in Uttar Pradesh, where this percentage dropped from 11.5% in 2012 to 9.4% in 2013. However, in Rajasthan the proportion of out of school girls age 11 to 14 rose for the second year in a row, from 8.9% in 2011 to 11.2% in 2012 to 12.1% in 2013.
Private School Enrollment
• The percentage of children (age group 6-14) enrolled in private schools is 29% in 2013. Private school enrolment figures were 28.3% in 2012. This number has risen from 18.7% in 2006. Boys are more likely to attend private school than girls.
• There are wide variations in private school enrollment across rural India. In Manipur and Kerala more than two thirds of all children in the 6 to 14 age group are enrolled in private schools. Less than 10% are in private school in Tripura (6.7%), West Bengal (7%), and Bihar (8.4%), although these numbers have grown substantially since 2006.
• As with private schooling, the incidence of private tuition varies across states. In Tripura and West Bengal, more than 60% of children in Std. I-V take paid private tuition. This proportion is high in Odisha, Bihar and Jharkhand also. But in Chhattisgarh and Mizoram, less than 5% of children in Std. I-V take paid private tuition.
• The proportion of children in Std. I-V who receive some form of private input into their schooling (private school, private tuition or both) has increased from 38.5% in 2010 to 42% in 2011, 44.2% in 2012 and to 45.1% in 2013.
• For the first time, ASER 2013 measured the amount families pay for a child’s private tutoring. Nationally, 68.4% of Std. I-V government school students who go to private tutors pay Rs. 100 or less per month. Among private school students of Std. I-V, 36.7% pay Rs. 100 or less per month and the same proportion pay between Rs. 101 and Rs. 200 per month for private tuition.
Out of School Girls
• States like Rajasthan (12.1%) and Uttar Pradesh (9.4%), apart from Bihar (4.6%), West Bengal (4.0%), Jharkhand (5.2%), Odisha (5.3%), Chhattisgarh (3.8%) and Gujarat (6.6%), have a high proportion of girls out of school during 2013.
• Overall, children’s attendance in school on the day of the visit has gone up from 74.3% in 2009 to 70.7% in 2013 in primary schools but declined from 77% in 2009 to 71.8% in 2013 in upper primary schools. Children’s attendance in school varies across the states with Tamil Nadu as the best performer.
• Teacher attendance in both primary and upper primary schools shows no change over the 2012 level of 85%. But student attendance shows a slight decline, especially in upper primary schools from 73.1% in 2012 to 71.8% in 2013.
School Facilities (Compliance with RTE)
• Of all schools visited in 2013, percentage of schools which have drinking water available and useable is 73.8%, toilets available and useable is 62.6%, girls' toilet available and useable is 53.3%, library available and books being used is 40.7%, kitchen shed in school available is 87.0%, and mid day meal served on day of visit is 87.2%.
• The proportion of schools that comply with RTE pupil-teacher ratio (PTR) norms has increased every year, from 38.9% in 2010 to 45.3% in 2013.
• The proportions of schools with an office/store, a playground, and a boundary wall have increased slightly over 2012 levels.
Learning Outcomes-Policies, plans and practice-Evidence to action
• At the All India level, for Std. III, the proportion of children able to read at least a Std. I level paragraph has risen slightly from 38.8% in 2012 to 40.2% in 2013. This increase is mainly coming from improvements among private school children. Among Std. III students in government schools the proportion of children able to read Std. I level text remains unchanged from 2012 at around 32%.
• States which show steady improvement in reading ability among Std. III students since 2009 are Jammu & Kashmir and Punjab.
• Nationally, the proportion of all children in Std. V who can read a Std. II level text remains virtually the same since 2012, at 47%. This proportion decreased each year from 2009 to 2012, dropping from 52.8% in 2009 to 46.9% in 2012. Among Std. V children enrolled in government schools, the percentage of children able to read Std. II level text decreased from 50.3% (2009) to 43.8% (2011) to 41.1% (2013).
• In 2013, states in which more than 60% children in Std. V in government schools could read a Std. II level text were Himachal Pradesh, Punjab, Mizoram and Kerala. Over time, reading levels among government school students in Std. V students have shown improvement in Jammu & Kashmir and Gujarat.
• The reading levels of government school children had declined especially in the period 2010 to 2012. Private school children’s reading levels increased since last year.
• ASER estimates that the number of children not able to read fluently is substantial in Std. III to V. Indications are that there may be a significant proportion of such children in Std. VI to VIII as well.
• The percentage of Std. III students who can at least do subtraction problems has declined from 36.3% in 2010 to 26.1% in 2013.
• The percentage of Std. V students who can at least do subtraction problems has declined from 70.8% in 2010 to 52.3% in 2013.
• Nationally, the proportion of all children in Std. V who could solve a three-digit by one-digit division problem increased slightly, from 24.9% in 2012 to 25.6% in 2013. Typically, this kind of division problem is part of the Std. III or Std. IV curriculum in most states.
• Among Std. V children in government schools, 20.8% children could do this level of division in 2013. The figure for private schools is 38.9%. In arithmetic, a large fraction of children are lagging several years behind where they are expected to be.
• In 2013, over 40% of government school children in Std. V in three states, Himachal Pradesh, Punjab and Mizoram could do three-digit by one-digit division problems.
• In 2010, 33.2% children of Std. III in government schools could at least do subtraction, as compared to 47.8% in private schools. The gap between children in government and private schools has widened over time. In 2013, 18.9% of Std. III students in government schools were able to do basic subtraction or more, as compared to 44.6% of Std. III children in private schools.
In the present survey, NSSO collected data on educational particulars like educational level attained - both general and technical, current attendance in educational institution, type of institution, vocational training received/ being received, etc. from the household members.
Literacy Rate in the Population
• In India, the overall literacy rate was 67 percent during 2009-10, and it was 62 percent in the rural areas and 79 percent in the urban areas.
• During 2009-10, in India, in as many as 20 percent of households in the rural areas and 6 percent in the urban areas, there was not a single member in the age-group 15 years and above who could read and write a simple message with understanding. This means that all the adult members in those households were illiterate. Further, as high as 40 per cent of the rural households and 15 per cent of the urban households had no literate female member.
• In the rural areas, 63 per cent of the households had at least one literate member of age 15 years and above in 1993-94; the proportion increased to 68 percent in 1999-2000, to 74 per cent in 2004-05 and 80 per cent in 2009-10. The corresponding proportions were about 86 percent, 88 percent, 92 percent and 94 percent, respectively, in the urban areas.
• About 71 percent of rural males and 53 percent of rural females were literate. The literacy rates among their urban counterparts were much higher at 84 percent and 74 percent, respectively.
• The literacy rate increased steadily over the years for all the categories of persons. Over a period of around 27 years since 1983, the literacy rate increased by 26 percentage points from 45 per cent for rural males, 31 percentage points from 22 per cent for rural females, 15 percentage points from 69 per cent for urban males, and by 22 percentage points from 52 per cent for urban females.
Literacy rate for persons of age 7 years and above
• About 73 per cent among persons of age 7 years above were literate in India during 2009-10.The proportion was 69 percent in the rural areas and 85 percent in the urban areas. As usual, the rate is found to be higher among the males (82 percent) than that among the females (64 percent).
Educational Level of the literates
• About 44 per cent of the literates of age 15 years and above were educated, i.e., with level of education secondary and above (including diploma/ certificate course), and about 11 per cent of the persons of age 15 years and above were graduates and above.
• Among all the categories of persons, that is, rural male, rural female, urban male and urban female, the proportion of the educated was the highest among urban males (63 per cent), followed by the urban females (58 per cent) and rural males (38 percent), and it was the lowest among rural females (30 percent).
• The proportion of persons with level of education graduate and above was also the highest among urban male (22 percent) and the lowest among rural female (only 4 percent).
Educational level and household type
• In the rural areas, the proportion of not-literates was the highest among persons belonging to the household type rural labour (46 per cent) and was the lowest among the household type others (26 percent).
• In the urban areas, the proportion of not-literates was the highest among the persons belonging to the household type casual labour (35 percent) and the lowest among the household type regular wage/salaried employees (11 percent).
• The proportion of the educated persons was found to be the highest for the household type others in both rural (42 percent) and urban (65 percent) areas.
• In India, among the persons of age 15 years and above, only 2 per cent had technical degrees or diplomas or certificates. The proportion was only 1 per cent in the rural areas and 5 per cent in the urban areas. Moreover, the rate among females was lower than that among males-the rates being nearly 1 per cent in the rural and about 3 percent in the urban areas for females, and nearly 1 per cent in the rural and about 7 percent in the urban areas for males.
• The distribution of persons by level of attainment of technical education also reveals that among those who had technical education, about 17 percent had degree in technical education of graduate level or above and the remaining had some certificate or diploma in technical education - about 55 per cent below graduate level and 28 percent at graduate and above level.
• The proportion of persons with technical degrees of graduate level or above was much higher in the urban areas (21 per cent) than in the rural areas (8 per cent). The proportion is also much higher among males than among females. Among females, this proportion was 4 per cent (as against 9 percent for males) in the rural areas and was 16 per cent (as against 23 per cent for males) in the urban areas.
Current Attendance in educational institution
• It is found that about 54 percent of the people in the age-group 5-29 years were currently attending educational institution. The said proportion was higher for males at 58 percent than for females (50 percent). The current attendance rate is found to be the highest among urban males (59 percent) and the lowest among the rural females (49 percent).
• Among persons who were currently not attending, about 25 per cent never attended any educational institution. It may be noted that this proportion is found to be the lowest among the urban males (13 per cent) and the highest among rural females (34 per cent).
Age-Specific Current Attendance Rate
• Current attendance rate is much higher for the age-group 5-14 years compared to the age-groups 15-19, 20-24 and 25-29 years. This is due to reason that discontinued or drop-out cases increase as the age of person increases. While the overall current attendance rate was 54 percent for the age-group 5-29 years, it was 87 per cent for the age-group 5-14 years, 58 percent for the age-group 15-19 years, 18 per cent for the age-group 20-24 years and 3 percent for the age- group 25-29 years.
Current Attendance by Type of Institution
• Government institutions accounted for 62 per cent of the students (i.e., those who were attending), followed by private unaided institutions (20 per cent), private aided institutions (13 per cent) and local body institutions (only 5 per cent).
• In rural areas, 70 per cent of the students were attending some Government institutions compared to 40 per cent in the urban areas.
• In the rural areas it is observed that, while among the male students, 73 per cent attended government or local body institutions, among the female students about 77 per cent attended government or local body institutions. The corresponding proportions in the urban areas were 43 per cent and 46 percent, respectively.
• In the rural areas, among the major states, the proportion of students attending government institutions was the highest in Chhattisgarh (97 percent) and lowest in Maharashtra (32 percent).
• The share of Government institutions in the total number of students, in the urban areas, is found to be the highest in Assam (76 per cent) and lowest in Maharashtra (23 per cent).
Type of institution and level of education
• In rural areas, among males, 72 per cent were attending primary level of education in government institutions followed by 16 per cent of males who were attending primary level of education in private unaided institutions and 67 per cent of males were attending secondary level of education in government institutions followed by 15 per cent of males who were attending secondary level of education in private aided institutions.
• In case of rural females, we see that 76 percent of the students were attending primary level of education in government institutions followed by 14 percent of the students who were attending primary level of education in private unaided institutions while for secondary level of education, 71 per cent of students were attending government institutions followed by 13 per cent of students who were attending private aided institutions.
• In urban areas, 37 per cent of males were attending primary level of education in government institutions against 38 per cent attending private unaided institutions and 41 per cent of males were attending secondary level of education in government institutions against 27 per cent of student attending secondary level of education in private unaided institutions.
• For urban females the picture is almost the same. 39 per cent of females were attending primary level of education in government institutions against 36 per cent attending private unaided institutions and 46 per cent of females were attending secondary level of education in government institutions and 26 percent of students were attending secondary level of education in private unaided institutions.
Gross and Net attendance ratio*
• In primary, middle, secondary and higher secondary level the Gross attendance ratios were 99 percent, 89 percent, 91 percent and 61 percent respectively. The picture is almost the same in rural and urban areas.
• In India the Net attendance ratio was 78 percent, 56 percent, 47 percent and 33 percent for primary, middle, secondary and higher secondary level of attendance, respectively.
• Among the major states, in rural areas, for primary level of education, Uttarakhand showed the maximum Net attendance ratio (93 per cent) followed by Jammu & Kashmir (90 per cent) while Bihar and Jharkhand showed the minimum Net attendance ratio (63 per cent each). For secondary level of education, in rural areas, Kerala showed the highest Net attendance ratio (77 per cent) followed by Karnataka (69 per cent) while Rajasthan showed the minimum Net attendance ratio (31 per cent) followed by Bihar and Madhya Pradesh (33 per cent each).
• Among the major states, in urban areas, for primary level of education, Uttarakhand showed the maximum Net attendance ratio (87 per cent) followed by Haryana and Himachal Pradesh (86 per cent each) while Bihar showed the minimum Net attendance ratio (68 per cent). For secondary level of education, in urban areas, Kerala showed the highest Net attendance ratio (81 per cent) followed by Karnataka (78 per cent) and Rajasthan showed the minimum Net attendance ratio (32 per cent) followed by Uttarakhand (35 per cent).
* The Gross attendance ratio for a particular level of education has been defined as the ratio of number of persons with current attendance in that particular level and estimated persons in a specified age-group.
* The Net attendance ratio for a particular level of education has been defined as the ratio of number of persons belonging to a particular age-group with current attendance in that particular level and estimated persons in that specified age-group.
Reason for Not Currently Attending any educational institution
• Ever attended persons: In the rural areas, about 62 per cent of males who were currently not attending any educational institution reported the reason ‘to supplement household income' and in the urban areas it was 66 percent of males. The reason ‘to attend domestic chores' was reported by 46 per cent of females in the rural areas and 47 per cent of females in the urban areas. About 13 per cent in the rural areas and 9 per cent in the urban areas considered ‘education not necessary' and therefore, they were not currently attending any educational institution. It may be noted that about 23 per cent of persons, in rural areas and 26 per cent of persons in urban areas, reported ‘others' as the cause for not attending any educational institution, that is for these persons, some reasons other than the specified ones in the survey, had been the cause for not attending.
• Never attended persons: Among the specified reasons, the highest proportion of persons reported ‘education not considered necessary' as the reason for not attending an educational institution - the proportion being 23 percent in both rural and urban areas. Moreover, about 8 percent in the rural areas and 5 percent in the urban areas reported that they never attended any educational institution as the schools were too far. It has also been observed that about 38 to 40 per cent of persons reported ‘others' had been the cause for never attending any educational institution.
Key findings of the [inside]Annual Status of Education Report 2012[/inside] prepared by PRATHAM, http://img.asercentre.org/docs/Publications/ASER%20Reports/ASER_2012/nationalfinding.pdf are as follows:
Enrollment in the 6-14 age group continues to be very high. But the proportion of out of school children has increased, especially among girls in the age group of 11 to 14
• Overall, enrollment numbers remain very high. Over 96% of all children in the age group 6 to 14 years are enrolled in school. This is the fourth consecutive year that enrollment levels have been 96% or more.
• Nationally, the proportion of children (age 6 to 14) who are not enrolled in school has gone up slightly, from 3.3% in 2011 to 3.5% in 2012. A slight increase is seen for all age groups and for both boys and girls.
• Girls in the age group of 11 to 14 years are often the hardest to bring to school and keep in school. In 2006, in eight major states, more than 11% girls in this age group were not enrolled in school. By 2011, this figure had dropped to less than 6.5% in 3 of these states (Jharkhand, Gujarat and Odisha) and less than 5% in 3 others (Bihar, Chhattisgarh and West Bengal). The situation in these states remained more or less unchanged in 2012. However in Rajasthan and Uttar Pradesh, the proportion of out of school girls (age 11-14) has increased from 8.9% and 9.7% respectively in 2011 to more than 11% in 2012
Private school enrollment continues to rise in almost all states
• At the All India level private school enrollment has been rising steadily since 2006. The percentage of 6 to 14 year olds enrolled in private schools rose from 18.7% in 2006 to 25.6% in 2011. This year this number has further increased to 28.3%. The increase is almost equal in primary (Std. I-V) and upper primary (Std. VI-VIII) classes. In 2012, among all private school children (age 6-14), 57.9% were boys.
• In 2012, more than 40% of children (age 6-14 years) in Jammu & Kashmir, Punjab, Haryana, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh and Meghalaya are enrolled in private schools. This percentage is 60% or more in Kerala and Manipur.
• Increase in private school enrollment is seen in almost all states, with the exception of Kerala, Nagaland, Manipur and Meghalaya (where private school enrollment was over 40% even last year) and Tripura.
• Since 2009, private school enrollment in rural areas has been rising at an annual rate of about 10%. If this trend continues, by 2018 India will have 50% children in rural areas enrolled in private school
Reading levels continue to be a cause for serious concern. More than half of all children in Std. V are at least three grade levels behind where they should be
• In 2010 nationally, 46.3% of all children in Std. V could not read a Std. II level text. This proportion increased to 51.8% in 2011 and further to 53.2% in 2012. For Std. V children enrolled in government schools, the percentage of children unable to read Std. II level text has increased from 49.3% (2010) to 56.2% (2011) to 58.3% (2012).
• For all children in Std. V, the major decline in reading levels (of 5 percentage points or more) between 2011 and 2012 is seen in Haryana, Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra and Kerala. Even private schools in Maharashtra and Kerala, with a large proportion of aided schools, show a decline in reading ability for Std. V.
• The percentage of all children enrolled in Std. III who cannot read a Std. I level text has increased steadily from 53.4% (2009) to 54.4% (2010) to 59.7% (2011) to 61.3% in 2012. For children enrolled in government schools, this figure has increased from 57.6% in 2010 to 64.8% in 2011 to 67.7% in 2012.
2012 was the year of mathematics. But it has been a bad year for basic arithmetic for children in India
• In 2010, of all children enrolled in Std. V, 29.1% could not solve simple two-digit subtraction problems with borrowing. This proportion increased to 39% in 2011 and further to 46.5% in 2012. Barring Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka and Kerala, every major state shows signs of a substantial drop in arithmetic learning levels.
• Comparing the cohort of children who were in government schools in Std. V in 2011 with the cohort in Std. V in 2012, there is evidence of a more than 10 percentage point drop in the ability to do basic subtraction in almost all states. Exceptions are Bihar, Assam and Tamil Nadu where the drop is less; and Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka and Kerala where there has been either improvement or no change from 2011.
• The proportion of all children enrolled in Std. V who could not do division problems has increased from 63.8% in 2010 to 72.4% in 2011 to 75.2% in 2012. In rural India as a whole, two years ago about two thirds of all children in Std. V could not do simple division. In 2012 this number is close to three fourths.
• Himachal Pradesh, Punjab, Haryana, Chhattisgarh, Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat and Maharashtra are all states where the cohort in Std. V in 2012 seems to be substantially weaker than the cohort in Std. V in 2011. In the southern states, the situation is unchanged from 2011 except in Kerala where there is a significant improvement
ASER 2012 assessed basic English
• In ASER 2012, children were given a set of simple English reading and comprehension tasks. Across rural India, 48.9% children enrolled in Std. V could read English words or more, and 22.5% could read simple English sentences. Among all children enrolled in Std. VIII, 47% could read sentences. Of those who could read words or sentences, well above 60% could convey the meaning in their own language
Private inputs into children’s education, such as private schooling and private tutoring, are widespread
• And their influence on children’s learning outcomes is substantial.
• Whether enrolled in government schools or private schools, across rural India in the elementary grades (Std. I-VIII) about a quarter of all children also go to paid private tutors.
Another way to think about private inputs into education is to categorize children into four groups:
1. Children in government schools who do not go to private tutors;
2. Children in government schools who go to private tutors;
3. Children in private schools who do not go to private tutors; and
4. Children in private schools who go to private tutor
• In 2012, the above four groups comprised 54.5%, 18.8%, 20.7% and 6% of all students in Std. V. Children in categories 2, 3 and 4 – amounting to about 45% of all children in Std. V in rural India - receive some form of private input into their education, either in the form of schooling or tuition.
• The influence of additional inputs in the form of tuition on children’s ability to read or to do arithmetic is clear.
The proportion of small schools is rising in India
• A total of 14,591 schools were visited during ASER 2012. Of these about 60% were government primary schools with classes up to Std. IV or V and the rest were upper primary schools which had primary sections.
• The proportion of government primary schools with enrollment of 60 or fewer students has increased over time. In the last 3 years, this figure has increased from 26.1% in 2009 to 32.1% in 2012.
• The proportion of children in primary grades who sit in multigrade classrooms is also rising. For Std. II, this number has gone up from 55.8% in 2009 to 62.6% in 2012. For Std. IV, it has risen from 51% in 2010 to 56.6% in 2012
School facilities show improvement over time
• Based on RTE norms, the pupil teacher ratio shows improvement. In 2010, the proportion of schools meeting these norms was 38.9%. This number has risen to 42.8% in 2012.
• 73% of all schools visited had drinking water available. However, just under 17% did not have drinking water facility at all. A water facility was available, though not usable in the remaining schools.
• The proportion of schools without toilets has reduced from 12.2% in 2011 to 8.4% in 2012 and the proportion of schools with useable toilets has increased from 47.2% in 2010 to 56.5% in 2012. Approximately 80% of schools visited had separate provision for girls’ toilets. Of schools which had this separate provision, close to half had useable girls’ toilets, as compared to a third in 2010.
• The mid-day meal was observed being served in 87.1% schools that were visited
According to [inside]Children in India 2012-A Statistical Appraisal[/inside], Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation, GoI,
• Statistics of School Education (2009-10) shows that there are 14,49,420 educational institutions in the country, of which there are 67,822 Pre-Primary/ Pre-basic schools, 8,23,162 Primary/ Junior basic schools, 3,67,745 Middle/ Sr. Basic schools, 1,23,726 High/ Post Basic schools, 66,917 Pre-degree/ junior colleges/ Higher secondary schools and 48 Boards of intermediate/ Secondary education.
• 89% teachers in the Higher Secondary Schools/ Junior Colleges were trained whereas the corresponding level in High /Post Basic Schools, Middle/ Sr.Basic School and Pre-Primary/ Primary/ Jr. Basic School are 90%, 88% and 86% respectively.
• The Economic Survey 2011-12 points out that pupil-teacher ratio improved from 38.9% in 2010 to 40.7% in 2011.
• At all India level, there has been a marginal decline in the proportion of schools with at least one classroom per teacher, from 76.2% in 2010 to 74.3% in 2011.
• Pupil-teacher ratio stood at 39 for Higher Secondary Schools/ Inter Colleges, 30 for High /Post Basic Schools, 34 for Middle/ Sr. Basic School and 42 for Pre-Primary/ Primary/ Jr. Basic School, as per Statistics of School Education 2009-10.
• Percentage of trained teachers stood at 89 percent for Higher Secondary Schools/ Inter Colleges, 90 percent for High /Post Basic Schools, 88 percent for Middle/ Sr. Basic School and 86 percent for Pre-Primary/ Primary/ Jr. Basic School, as per Statistics of School Education 2009-10.
• Number of female teachers per hundred male teachers stood at 65 for Higher Secondary Schools/ Inter Colleges, 61 for High /Post Basic Schools, 72 for Middle/ Sr. Basic School and 86 for Pre-Primary/ Primary/ Jr. Basic School, as per Statistics of School Education 2009-10.
• The number of primary schools in India has increased from 7.38 lakh in 2005-06 to 8.23 lakh in 2009-10.
• The number of Upper Primary schools in India has increased from 3.85 lakh in 2005-06 to 4.91 lakh in 2009-10.
• Number of teachers in Government schools increased from 3.4 million in 2005-06 to 3.9 million in 2009-10.
• Gross enrolment ratio (GER is the total enrolment in a specific level of education, regardless of age, expressed as a percentage of the eligible official school-age population corresponding to the same level of education in a given school year) for primary schools has improved from 104 percent in 2005-06 to 115 percent in 2009-10.
• Net enrolment ratio (NER is the ratio of children of official school age who are enrolled in school to the population of the corresponding official school age) has improved significantly from 84.5 percent in 2005-06 to 98 percent in 2009-10.
• Gender parity index (GPI is the ratio of the number of female students enrolled at primary and secondary levels in public and private schools to the number of male students) in primary education has gone up from 0.76 in 1990-91 to 1.00 in 2009-10 showing 31.6% increase and in secondary education the increase is from 0.60 in 1990-91 to 0.88 in 2009-10 thereby showing 46.7% increase.
Key findings of the [inside]Annual Status of Education Report (ASER) 2011[/inside], http://pratham.org/images/Aser-2011-report.pdf, are as follows:
Very high enrollment figures for rural India
• 96.7% of all 6-14 year olds in rural India are enrolled in school. This number has held steady since 2010.
• States that had a high proportion (over 10%) of 11-14 year old girls out of school in 2006 have made significant progress. For example Bihar out of school numbers have dropped from 17.6% in 2006 to 4.3% in 2011. Rajasthan shows a decline from 18.9% in 2006 to 8.9% in 2011. Uttar Pradesh has shown the least progress with 11.1% 2006 and 9.7% in 2011.
• Substantial numbers of five year old children are enrolled in school. The All India figure stands at 57.8% for 2011. This proportion varies across states, ranging from 87.1% in Nagaland to 18.8% in Karnataka.
Private school enrollment is rising in most states
• Nationally, private school enrollment has risen year after year for the 6-14 age group, increasing from 18.7% in 2006 to 25.6% in 2011. These increases are visible in all states except Bihar.
• In states like Uttarakhand, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Kerala, Manipur and Meghalaya there has been an increase of over 10 percentage points in private school enrollment in the last five years.
• According to ASER 2011 data, between 30 to 50% of children in rural areas of Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, Nagaland, Meghalaya, Punjab, Jammu & Kashmir, Rajasthan, Uttarakhand, Maharashtra and Andhra Pradesh are enrolled in private schools.
Basic reading levels showing decline in many states
• Nationally, reading levels are estimated to have declined in many states across North India. The All India figure for the proportion of children in Std V able to read a Std 2 level text has dropped from 53.7% in 2010 to 48.2% in 2011. Such declines are not visible in the southern states.
• In a few states there is good news. In Gujarat, Punjab and Tamil Nadu the numbers for 2011 are better than for 2010. Several states in the north-eastern region of India also show positive change. Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh numbers remain unchanged from last year
Arithmetic levels also show a decline across most states
• Basic arithmetic levels estimated in ASER 2011 show a decline. For example, nationally, the proportion of Std III children able to solve a 2 digit subtraction problem with borrowing has dropped from 36.3% in 2010 to 29.9% in 2011. Among Std V children, the ability to do similar subtraction problems has dropped from 70.9% in 2010 to 61.0% in 2011.
• This decline is visible in almost every state; only Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka and Tamil Nadu show improvements from 2010 to 2011. Several states in the north-eastern region of India also show positive change. There is no change in arithmetic levels in Gujarat.
Main findings from school visits:
Children’s attendance has declined
• At the All India level, children's attendance shows a decline from 73.4% in 2007 to 70.9% in 2011 in rural primary schools.
• In some states, children's attendance shows a sharp decline over time: for example in primary schools of Bihar, average attendance of children was 59.0% in 2007 and 50.0% in 2011. In Madhya Pradesh this figure has fallen from 67.0% in 2007 to 54.5% in 2011 and in Uttar Pradesh from 64.4% (2007) to 57.3% (2011).
More than half of all Std 2 and Std 4 classes are sit together with another class
• During the school visit, ASER focuses on Std 2 and Std 4 and observes whether children in these classes are sitting together with children from other classes.
• Nationally, for rural government primary schools, data suggests that over half of all classes visited are multigrade. For example, all India Std 2 was sitting with one or more other classes in 58.3% of Std 2 classes in primary schools were sitting with another class. This figure is 53% for Std 4.
• Schools get their grants, but not on time
Main findings: Tracking RTE Indicators
Not much change in compliance on Pupil-teacher ratio and Classroom-teacher ratio
• At the All India level, there has been a marginal improvement in the proportion of schools complying with RTE norms on pupil-teacher ratio, from 38.9% in 2010 to 40.7% in 2011. In 2011, Kerala stands out with 94.1% of schools in compliance, and in Jammu & Kashmir, Nagaland and Manipur, more than 80% schools are in compliance with these norms.
• At the All India level, there has been a marginal decline in the proportion of schools with at least one classroom per teacher, from 76.2% in 2010 to 74.3% in 2011. In Mizoram, 94.8% of schools comply with the teacher-classroom norms and in Punjab, Uttarakhand, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh, Gujarat and Maharashtra more than 80% of schools are in compliance.
No major changes in buildings, playgrounds, boundary walls or drinking water
• All India figures for 2011 show no significant improvement in the proportion of schools with an office cum store. This figure remains at 74%. Similarly, for the country has a whole, about 62% of visited schools had a playground, both in 2010 and in 2011. However, there has been an increase in the proportion of all schools that have a boundary wall, from 50.9% in 2010 to 54.1% in 2011.
• Nationally, the proportion of schools with no provision for drinking water remained almost the same – 17.0% in 2010 and 16.6% in 2011. The proportion of schools with a useable drinking water facility has remained steady at about 73%. Kerala has the best record with 93.8% schools that have a useable drinking water facility.
Better provision of girls’ toilets
• The proportion of schools where there was no separate girls' toilet has declined from 31.2% in 2010 to 22.6% in 2011. Also, there has been a substantial improvement in the proportion of schools that have separate girls' toilets that are useable. This figure has risen nationally from 32.9% in 2010 to 43.8% in 2011
More libraries in schools, and more children using them
• The proportion of schools without libraries has declined from 37.5% in 2010 to 28.6% in 2011. Children were seen using the library in more schools as well-up from 37.9% in 2010 to 42.3% in 2011.
According to [inside]Global Education Digest 2011-Comparing Education Statistics Across the World[/inside], UNESCO,
• The most populated country in South Asia, India, accounts for three-quarters of the regional leap in enrolment. From 1970 to 2009, enrolment in secondary education increased from 21 million to 102 million in this country alone.
• In Afghanistan and India lower secondary enrolment ratios are below 80%.
• The biggest increases in total numbers of primary and secondary school teachers from 1990 to 2009 were observed in sub-Saharan Africa (79% and 157%), the Arab States (71% and 112%) and South and West Asia (49% and 83%). In sub-Saharan Africa and South and West Asia (in particular in Afghanistan, India and Pakistan), growth has been especially rapid since 2000 with the passage of international agreements set out in the EFA Dakar Framework for Action. However, all three regions are still faced with acute teacher shortages in their bid to meet the EFA goals by 2015.
• In 2009, 702 million children were enrolled worldwide in primary education, compared to 646 million in 1999. This marked improvement in access to primary education represents an increase of 9% worldwide.
• The gross enrolment ratio (GER) in lower secondary education increased from 72% to 80% worldwide between 1999 and 2009, with notable increases in the Arab States and sub-Saharan Africa. Yet despite this progress, the participation rate for this level of education remains very low in sub-Saharan Africa at 43%. In addition, one-third of the world’s children still live in countries where lower secondary education is formally considered compulsory but where the commitment is not met. This is especially the case in South and West Asia.
• Between 1999 and 2009, the GER for girls increased from 69% to 79% in lower secondary and from 43% to 55% in upper secondary education worldwide. However, the Arab States and sub-Saharan Africa still faced serious gender disparities at the lower secondary level, while disparities at the upper secondary level intensified in South and West Asia and sub-Saharan Africa.
Key findings of the [inside]Annual Status of Education Report (ASER) 2010[/inside], http://images2.asercentre.org/aserreports/ASER_2010_PRESS_RELEASE.pdf, are as follows:
• Enrollment: In 2010, ASER found that 96.5% of children in the 6 to 14 age group in rural India is enrolled in school. While 71.1% of these children are enrolled in government schools, 24.3 % are enrolled in private schools.
• Out of school girls: 5.9% of girls in the 11-14 age group are still out of school. However, this percentage has gone down as compared to 6.8% in 2009. In states like Rajasthan (12.1%) and Uttar Pradesh (9.7%), this percentage remains high and shows little change since 2009. Noteworthy in this regard is the performance of Bihar where the percentage of out of school girls and boys in all age groups has been declining steadily since 2005. In 2006, 12.3% of boys and 17.6% girls were out of school in the 11-14 age group. By 2010, these numbers had declined to 4.4% for boys and 4.6% for girls, showing very little difference by gender.
• Rise in private school enrolment: Enrollment in private schools in rural India increased from 21.8% in 2009 to 24.3% in 2010. This number has risen steadily since 2005 when it was 16.3% nationally. Between 2009 and 2010, the southern states have shown a substantial increase in private school enrollments. The percentage of children in private school increased from 29.7% to 36.1% in Andhra Pradesh, from 19.7% to 25.1% in Tamil Nadu, from 16.8% to 20% in Karnataka and from 51.5% to 54.2% in Kerala. Among other states, Punjab showed an increase from 30.5% to 38%. However, this proportion remains low in Bihar (5.2%), West Bengal (5.9%), Jharkhand (8.8%), Orissa (5.4%) and Tripura (2.8%).
• Increasing numbers of five year olds enrolled in school: Nationally, the percentage of five year olds enrolled in schools increased from 54.6% in 2009 to 62.8% in 2010. The biggest increase was visible in Karnataka where the proportion of five year olds enrolled in school increased from 17.1% in 2009 to 67.6 in 2010. Enrollment of five year olds increased substantially between 2009 and 2010 in several other states such as Punjab (68.3% to 79.6%), Haryana (62.8% to 76.8%), Rajasthan (69.9% to75.8%), Uttar Pradesh (55.7% to 73.1%) and Assam (49.1% to 59%).
• Nationally, not much change in reading ability, except in some states: Even after five years in school, close to half of all children are not even at the level expected of them after two years in school. Only 53.4% children in Std V could read a Std II level text.
• Math ability shows a declining trend: On average, there has been a decrease in children’s ability to do simple mathematics. The proportion of Std I children who could recognize numbers from 1-9 declined from 69.3% in 2009 to 65.8% in 2010. Similarly, the proportion of children in Std III who could solve two digit subtraction problems decreased from 39% to 36.5% in the same period. Children in Std V who could do simple division problems also dropped from 38% in 2009 to 35.9% in 2010. Contrary to this trend, Punjab's performance in basic arithmetic has improved over the last few years. For example, the percentage of children in Std II who could recognize numbers up to 100 in 2008 was 56.3%. This number increased to 59.6% in 2009 and to 70.4% in 2010. Similarly, the proportion of Std IV children who could do subtraction increased from 66.9% in 2008 to 81.4% in 2010. The percentage of Std V children who could do division rose from 43.5% in 2008 to 69.8% in 2010.
• Middle school children weak in everyday calculations: In 2010, children in Std V and above were asked a set of questions based on everyday calculations. The tasks included calculations from a menu card, reading a calendar, estimating volume and calculating area. Overall, in Std VIII, three quarters of all children were able to do the calculations based on the menu. About two thirds of all children could answer questions based on a calendar and only half could do the calculations related to area. The questions related to area seemed to be the most difficult for children to solve, even though such problems are usually found in textbooks in Std IV or V. Children in Std VIII in Kerala and Bihar solved the area related questions the best, 79% and 69% respectively.
• Tuition going down for private school children: A clear decrease is seen in the incidence of tuition among children enrolled in private schools across all classes up to Std VIII. This proportion has not changed much among children enrolled in government schools, although in states like Bihar, West Bengal and Odisha, where private school enrollment is low, the proportion of children in Std V enrolled in government schools who take tuition classes is high (West Bengal-75.6%, Bihar-55.5% and Odisha-49.9%).
• RTE compliance: ASER 2010 found that over 60% of the 13,000 schools visited satisfied the infrastructure norms specified by the RTE. However, more than half of these schools will need more teachers. A third will need more classrooms. 62% of the schools visited had playgrounds, 50% had a boundary wall or fence and 90% had toilets. However, toilets were useable in only half of these schools. 70% of schools visited had a separate girls’ toilet, but this facility was useable in only 37% of the schools. 81% schools had a kitchen shed and 72% had drinking water available. The all India percentage of primary schools (Std 1-4/5) with all teachers present on the day of the visit shows a consistent decrease over three years, falling from 73.7% in 2007 to 69.2% in 2009 and 63.4% in 2010. For rural India as a whole, children’s attendance shows no change over the period 2007-2010. Attendance remained at around 73% during this period. But there is considerable variation across states.
The [inside]Annual Status of Education Report 2009[/inside],
Fewer girls 11-14 out of school
• The overall percentage of children (6-14) who are out of school has dropped from 4.3% in 2008 to 4% in 2009.
• Out of school girls in the age group 11 to 14 has dropped from 7.2% in 2008 to 6.8% in 2009. In terms of a decline in percentage points, this decrease is clearly visible in Chhattisgarh (3.8), Bihar (2.8), Rajasthan (2.6), Orissa (2.1), Jammu and Kashmir (1.9). Other than Meghalaya all other states in the North East also show a drop.
• Andhra Pradesh records an increase in the percentage of 11-14 year old girls out of school from 6.6% in 2008 to 10.8% in 2009. So does Punjab from 4.9% in 2008 to 6.3% in 2009.
Private school enrolment hasn’t changed much
• Overall, for 6-14 year olds, between 2008 and 2009 there has been a slight decline in the percentage of children enrolled in private school (0.8 percentage points). However, six states show a decline in private school enrolment of more than 5 percentage points. Of these, Punjab which has one of the highest private school enrollments in the country shows the greatest drop (11.3 percentage points).
Half of India’s five year olds are enrolled in primary school
• In 2009 as in 2008, well over 50% of 5 year olds are enrolled in school.
• Although for the country as a whole, the status of 3 and 4 year olds going to preschool (anganwadi or balwadi) has not changed much since 2008, among the major states Bihar, Orissa, Chhattisgarh and Gujarat record a more than five percentage point increase in the proportion of children going to anganwadi.
Learning levels improving in Std 1
• The foundation of children’s learning is built in early grades. Overall, the percentage of children in Std 1 who can recognize letters or more has increased from 65.1% in 2008 to 68.8% in 2009. Similarly there is an increase in number recognition, with percentage of children recognizing numbers or more increasing from 65.3% in 2008 to 69.3 in 2009.
• For Std 1 children in government schools in Punjab, Haryana, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh, Jharkhand and Orissa there is an increase of 10 percentage points or more as compared to last year in their ability to at least recognize letter and numbers up to 9. In Tamil Nadu and Goa, there is an improvement in both reading and maths of more than 5 percentage points. Similar increases are visible in Uttarakhand and Maharashtra in maths and in Karnataka in letter recognition.
No major improvements in learning levels for children in Std 5 except in Tamil Nadu for reading and in a few states in maths
• The all India figure for percentage of all rural children in Std 5 reading text at Std 2 level shows a decline from 56.2% in 2008 to 52.8% in 2009. This means that well over 40% of all rural children in Std 5 in India are at least three grade levels behind.
• In reading, for government school children in Std 5 in Tamil Nadu there is an 8 percentage point increase over 2008 levels. Karnataka and Punjab also show improvements over last year. Hardly any change in other states in reading as compared to 2008.
• In maths, for children in Std 5, for the country as a whole, the ability to do division problems has hardly increased. However 7 states show increases of 5 to 8 percentage points. These states are Himachal Pradesh, Punjab, Assam, West Bengal, Orissa, Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka.
Wide variation in the ability to read and comprehend English across India
• The all India numbers indicate that a quarter of all rural children in Std 5 children can read simple sentences. Of those who can read sentences, over 80% can understand the meaning of the sentence.
• By Std 8, 60.2% of all children can read simple sentences. In all the north-eastern states (except Tripura), Goa, Himachal Pradesh and Kerala more than 80% of children in Std 8 can not only read simple sentences fluently but also understand the meaning.
Increase in tuition classes for all children across all grades
• Nationally, between 2007 and 2009, the percentage of children taking paid tuition increased for every class, in both government and private schools. Only Kerala and Karnataka show a small but consistent decline in the incidence of tuition across government school children in most classes.
• Among government school children, the percentage going to tuition class increases steadily as children move into higher classes: from 17.1% in Std 1 to 30.8% in Std 8.
• Among children attending private schools, almost a quarter (23.3%) take private tuition from Std 1 onwards. The percentage peaks at 29.8% in Std 4.
• Children in West Bengal are by far the most intensive users of paid private tuition in the country; more than half of all Std 1 and almost 90% of all Std 8 government school children take some kind of paid tuition. The incidence of tuition in Bihar and Orissa is also high, with very large numbers of government school children taking tuition, ranging from about a third in Std 1 to well over half in Std 8.
Children’s attendance needs improvement in some states
• Comparisons across the three years (2005, 2007 and 2009) indicate that children’s attendance in school, as observed on a random day in the school year, varies considerably across states. There are states like Bihar where less than 60% of enrolled children are attending on the day of the visit to southern states where average attendance is well above 90%. In addition, states like Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh, Jharkhand, Orissa and Madhya Pradesh need to pay more attention to raising attendance in schools. In most states, on the day of the visit, close to 90% of appointed teachers were present in the school.
Multigrade grouping is widespread
• In 2007 and 2009, surveyors were asked to observe if Std 2 and Std 4 were grouped and sitting together with any other grade. In both years, the incidence of multi-grade groupings was high. At the all-India level close to 50% children in class 2 and 4 were sitting with other classes.
Increase in useable toilets and improvements in availability of drinking water
• All India figures indicate that overall, the percentage of schools with no water or toilet provision is declining over time. Water is available in 75% of government primary schools and 81% of upper primary schools. Useable toilets can be found in over 50% of government schools. Four out of ten government primary schools do not have separate toilets for girls. This number is lower for upper primary schools at 26%. About 12 -15% girls’ toilets are locked and only about 30 - 40% are useable.
Not all schools received the annual school grants for the last school year
• There is considerable variation across states for grants received in the last school year. In Nagaland close to 90% of schools visited had received all their annual grants, where as the percentage of visited schools receiving their grants in the 2008-2009 school year was 60% or below in Jharkhand, Orissa and Madhya Pradesh.
According to [inside]Education in India: 2007-08[/inside], Participation and Expenditure
NSS 64th Round, (July 2007–June 2008), Report No. 532(64/25.2/1):
• A survey on ‘Participation and Expenditure in Education’ was conducted in NSS 64th round (July 2007 - June 2008). A sample of 445960 persons, from 63318 rural households and 37263 urban households spread over the country, was surveyed.
• The states with relatively high literacy are- Kerala (94%), Assam (84%), Maharashtra (81%)
• The states with relatively low literacy are- Bihar (58%), Rajasthan (62%), Andhra Pradesh (64%)
• Other low-literacy states included Rajasthan (61.7%), Andhra Pradesh (63.5%), Jharkhand (64.6%), Uttar Pradesh (66.2%), J&K (67.7%) and Orissa (68.3%)
• 66% of the country’s adult population (population of age 15 & above) was found to be literate.
• In rural India, 51.2% of the population in the lowest decile class of monthly per capita expenditure (MPCE) were not literate. Even in the highest decile class, 22.8% persons were not literate.
• The literacy rate (i.e. percentage of literates) for all ages among rural female (RF), rural male (RM), urban female (UF) and urban male (UM) populations was found to be 51.1%, 68.4%, 71.6% and 82.2% respectively. The corresponding rates two decades ago as estimated in NSS 42nd round (1986-87) were 24.8%, 47.6%, 59.1% and 74.0% respectively.
• 98% of rural households & 99% of urban households have school with primary classes within 2 km
• 79% of rural households & 97% of urban households have school with middle classes within 2 km
• 47% of rural households & 91% of urban households have school with secondary classes within 2 km
• Among persons in age-group 5-29: 46% were not currently enrolled in any educational institution; 2% were currently enrolled but not attending; 52% were currently attending educational institutions
• Among persons aged 5-29 attending education of level primary & above - 49% were in Primary level; 24% were in Middle level; 20% in Secondary/HS level; 7% in above-HS level
• For major course attended: type of education was General in 97.8%, Technical in 1.9%, Vocational in 0.3% cases.
• Net Attendance Ratio (NAR) for Classes I-VIII (All-India): 86%
• Major states with relatively high NAR (I-VIII): Himachal Pr. (96%), Kerala (94%), Tamil Nadu (92%)
• Major states with relatively low NAR (I-VIII): Bihar (74%), Jharkhand (81%), Uttar Pradesh (83%)
• At Primary level – 73% of students in private unaided institutions attended recognized institutions
• At Middle level – 78% of students in private unaided institutions attended recognized institutions
• At Primary level: 71% students got free education (Rural- 80%, Urban- 40%)
• At Middle level: 68% students got free education (Rural- 75%, Urban- 45%)
• At Secondary/ HS level: 48% students got free education (Rural- 54%, Urban- 35%)
• Average annual private expenditure per student at Primary level - Rs. 1413 (Rural- Rs. 826, Urban- Rs.3626)
• Average annual private expenditure per student at Middle level - Rs. 2088 (Rural- Rs.1370, Urban- Rs.4264)
• Average annual private expenditure per student at Secondary/ HS level- Rs. 4351 (Rural- Rs.3019, Urban- Rs.7212)
• Average annual private expenditure per student at Above HS level- Rs. 7360 (Rural- Rs.6327, Urban- Rs.8466)
• Average annual private expenditure per student for Technical Education: Rs.32112 (Rural- Rs.27177, Urban- Rs.34822)
• Average annual private expenditure per student for Vocational Education: Rs.14881 (Rural- Rs.13699, Urban- Rs.17016)
• Average annual private expenditure on education at primary level varied from around Rs. 600-800 in states like Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand and Orissa to more than Rs. 3500 in states like Punjab and Haryana.
• For primary education, students in the poorest category in the rural sector incurred an average expenditure of Rs. 352, compared to Rs.3516 for the richest class. In the urban sector the disparity in average educational expenditure was greater still, from Rs. 1035 in the lowest decile class to Rs.13474 in the highest decile class of MPCE.
• For the country as a whole average expenditure on tuition fees (Rs. 1034), examination fee, other fees and payments (Rs. 459) together contributed about half of total expenditure (Rs. 3058) on education. Books and stationery (Rs. 586) was reported to be the next major component of expenditure followed by private coaching (Rs. 354).
• In rural India, tuition fee, together with examination fee and other fees and payments, contributed 40% of total expenditure while another 25% was spent on books and stationery. In the urban sector tuition fee alone contributed 40% of total expenditure.
• In rural areas, the majority of students were attending government schools – 76% of primary level students, 73% of middle level students, and 62% of secondary and HS level students.
• In urban areas, on the other hand, 59% of students at primary level were in private schools. At middle and secondary/ HS level, 54-55% was in private schools. Government schools accounted for only 35% of primary level students, 40% of middle level students, and 43% of secondary/ HS level students.
• While in states like Assam, Bihar, Chhattisgarh and Orissa, more than 90% of students at primary level attended schools run by government or local bodies, the corresponding proportion was only 35% in Kerala and 45% in Punjab. In these two states, the majority of students, even at primary level, were in private schools – aided or unaided.
• About 60% of students in government and local-body-run institutions got mid-day meals compared to 16% in aided private institutions and 2% in unaided private only.
• Differentials across institution types were equally marked in case of free/ subsidised books, with 69% of students in government-run schools receiving such books compared to 22% in aided private and only 4% in unaided private institutions.
• Major reasons for Discontinuance/ drop-out: Financial constraints (21%), Child not interested in studies (20%), Unable to cope up or failure in studies (10%), Completed desired level or class (10%), Parents not interested in studies (9%)
• The three most frequently given reasons for non-enrolment were a) parents not interested in education of their children (33.2%), b) financial constraints (21%) and c) education not considered necessary (21.8%).
Note: Net Attendance Ratio (I-VIII)=(Number of persons in age-group 6-13 currently attending Classes I-VIII divided by Estimated population in the age-group I-VIII years) multiplied by hundred
According to the [inside]Education for All Report 2010[/inside],
• Human development indicators are deteriorating. An estimated 125 million additional people could be pushed into malnutrition in 2009 and 90 million into poverty in 2010.
• With poverty rising, unemployment growing and remittances diminishing, many poor and vulnerable households are having to cut back on education spending or withdraw their children from school.
• National budgets in poor countries are under pressure. Sub-Saharan Africa faces a potential loss of around US$4.6 billion annually in financing for education in 2009 and 2010, equivalent to a 10% reduction in spending per primary-school pupil.
• The number of children out of school has dropped by 33 million worldwide since 1999. South and West Asia more than halved the number of children out of school – a reduction of 21 million.
• The share of girls out of school has declined from 58% to 54%, and the gender gap in primary education is narrowing in many countries.
• Between 1985–1994 and 2000–2007, the adult literacy rate increased by 10%, to its current level of 84%. The number of adult female literates has increased at a faster pace than that of males.
• Malnutrition affects around 175 million young children each year and is a health and an education emergency.
• There were 72 million children out of school in 2007. Business as usual would leave 56 million children out of school in 2015.
• Literacy remains among the most neglected of all education goals, with about 759 million adults lacking literacy skills today. Two-thirds are women.
• Some 1.9 million new teacher posts will be required to meet universal primary education by 2015.
• In twenty-two countries, 30% or more of young adults have fewer than four years of education, and this rises to 50% or more in eleven sub-Saharan African countries.
According to [inside]Secondary Education in India: Universalizing Opportunity (2009)[/inside], January, prepared by Human Development Unit, South Asia Region, The World Bank,
• On the supply side, four key constraints limit access to secondary education: (i) insufficient and uneven distribution of school infrastructure; (ii) lack of trained teachers and inefficient teacher deployment; (iii) suboptimal use of the private sector to expand enrollment capacity and to achieve social objectives; and (iv) insufficient open schooling opportunities for those who have left the formal system.
• There is a 40 percentage point gap in secondary enrollment rates between students from the highest and lowest expenditure quintile groups (70 percent versus 30 percent enrollment, respectively). In addition, there is a 20 percentage point gap between urban and rural secondary enrollment rates, and a persistent 10 percentage point gap between secondary enrollment rates of boys and girls. Enrollment of STs, SCs and Muslims is well below their share in the population at large.
• India’s gross enrollment rate (GER) at the secondary level of 40 percent is far inferior to the GERs of its global competitors in East Asia (average 70 percent) and Latin America (average 82 percent). Even countries such as Vietnam and Bangladesh, which have lower per capita incomes than India, have higher gross enrollment rates.
• At the lower secondary level (grades 9 and 10), the gross enrollment rate (GER) is 52 percent, while at the senior secondary level (grades 11 and 12) it is just 28 percent, for a combined GER of 40 percent (2005). In absolute terms, total secondary enrollment (lower and senior secondary) in 2004/05 was 37.1 million students, with 65 percent (24.3 million) in lower secondary and 35 percent (12.7 million) in senior secondary. It is estimated at over 40 million in 2008.
• Projections suggest an increase in absolute demand for secondary education between 2007/08 and 2017/18 of around 17 million students per year, with total enrollment growing from 40 to 57 million students.
• Wealthier children are more than twice as likely to be enrolled in secondary education as poor children. In some states (e.g. Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh) there is more than a twenty-point percentage gap in enrollment between boys and girls. Secondary attendance of the general population is 80 percent higher than that for STs, SCs and Muslims. Finally, secondary enrollment by state varies greatly, from 22 percent in Bihar to 92 percent in Kerala; and from 4 percent in Jharkhand to 44 percent in Tamil Nadu at the senior secondary level. Such huge differences reflect, in part, a lack of central government involvement in secondary education to equalize opportunities, particularly in the poorer states.
• Secondary education currently accounts for less than a third of India’s total public spending on education, equivalent in absolute terms to about US$7.2 billion per year (less than 10 percent of this on investment). About 75 percent of the public spending on secondary education comes from the states, which spend less than 1 percent of their per capita incomes for this purpose. Compared with international benchmarks, India’s per student public spending on secondary education as a percentage of GDP per capita is somewhat high (27 percent, compared to a benchmark for fast-growing economies of 18 percent). India’s per-student public spending on secondary education is also high as a ratio of per student spending on primary education (2.9, compared to a benchmark for fast-growing economies of 1.4). On the other hand, by international standards, India’s per student spending on secondary education appears quite reasonable in absolute terms (average US$173, compared to spending per student in secondary education of US$577 in Latin America and the Caribbean, US$257 in Sub-Saharan Africa, and US$ 117 in South Asia). Public teacher salaries as a ratio of GDP/capita are 4:1 (private teacher salaries as a ratio of GDP/capita are 2.3:1).
• With current low levels of efficiency in India’s secondary schools, the estimated cost of producing a lower secondary graduate is high, at around Rs. 21,500 (about US$500 in 2005), or about Rs. 40,000 (US$911) for both levels of secondary education. Government schools spend less per student than private aided schools; approximately half of public funds in secondary education are spent through grants-in-aid to private schools, although these schools constitute just 30 percent of the total number.
The [inside]Annual Status of Education Report 2008 (Rural)[/inside]
Percentage of children not in school is dropping. Bihar has done well
In Bihar, children (6 – 14 year old) not on school have dropped steadily over the last four years from 13.1% in 2005 to 5.7% in 2008. Over the same period, the proportion of girls 11-14 not in school has dropped from 20.1% to 8.8%.
Enrollment in private schools is increasing
Among all 6-14 year olds, the proportion of children attending private schools has increased from 16.4% in 2005 to 22.5% in 2008. This increase in private school enrollment represents a 37.2 percent increase over the baseline of 2005. This increase is particularly striking in Karnataka, Uttar Pradesh and Rajasthan.
Between 32% to 42% of all school going children In Nagaland, Punjab, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh and Rajasthan go to private schools. (DISE data indicates that In these states private schools are mostly unaided).
Madhya Pradesh and Chhattisgarh show dramatic improvement in reading
Chhattisgarh has shown a dramatic improvement in children’s reading ability. The proportion of children in Std III who could read a Std I level text has increased from 31% in 2007 to 70% in 2008. The proportion of Std V children who could read a Std II level text in 2007 was 58% . By 2008, this figure had gone up to 75% in 2008. Reading levels in Chhattisgarh have improved dramatically across the board.
In Madhya Pradesh too, reading levels in 2008 show a big jump at every level over 2006, and 2007. With 86.8% government school children in Std V being able to read Std. II level text, Madhya Pradesh tops the ASER scale of reading among all states including Kerala and Himachal where 73-74% children in Std V can read a Std II text in government schools.
Madhya Pradesh, Kerala, Maharashtra, Chhattisgarh, and Himachal Pradesh are states that lead the country in terms of children’s basic reading fluency. In these states children who can read letters or more in Std I are over 85% and those who can read Std II text or more in Std V is over 75%.
ASER has used essentially the same tool and the same method for four years.1 Barring some states such as Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Himachal, Andhra, and Chhattisgarh, no major change has been observed in basic reading in other states.
Chhattisgarh and Madhya Pradesh show improvement in arithmetic also
ASER tests indicate that Madhya Pradesh and Chhattisgarh have made remarkable strides in improving basic math skills over the last year. In both states more than 91% children in Std I can identify numbers 1-9 or more. Although in Kerala this proportion is 96% in Std I, the highest literacy state loses its lead by Std III.
In 2008, 78.2% of children in Std V in Madhya Pradesh, could correctly solve a division problem. This is the highest recorded in the country. In several other states, this figure is around 60%; for example in Himachal, Chattisgaroh, Manipur and Goa.
In Chhattisgarh, the improvement in arithmetic is dramatic, indicative of a focused intervention. In 2008, Std II children who could identify numbers up to 100 or do higher level operations was at 77.8. This figure for Std II in 2007 was 37.2%. Similarly, those who could at least solve subtraction in Std III jumped from 21.8% in 2007 to 63.5% in 2008.
In states such as UP, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat, about 50% children in Std V can tell time. Bihar, Jharkhand, Orissa, Haryana, J&K, Punjab, Uttarakhand are all above the national average.
In Madhya Pradesh, Kerala, Chhattisgarh and Maharashtra, where math and reading ability is recorded to be much better than the national average, more than 75% children in Std V can tell time.
Other interesting findings from the survey
Pukka road connects 71.9% villages to the outside world. Lowest numbers are Assam (32.7%), West Bengal (44.2%), Bihar (53.2%) and Madhya Pradesh (58.9%%) are states among the poorest connected states.
According to the [inside]Literacy and Levels of Education in India 1999-2000 of the 55th Round NSS[/inside], July 1999- June 2000:
In urban India, the proportion of literates was 798 out of 1000. Therefore, about one-fifth of the urban population was not literate. Among the literates, 325 persons (out of 798) attained education level secondary and above. This is much higher compared to rural India. Among the males, the literacy rate was as high as 865 out of 1000 while the same for females was about 72%.
In rural India, the literacy rate was the lowest for persons belonging to ST households (42%) followed by persons belonging to SC households (47%). But in urban India, the literacy rate was the lowest for SC households (66%) followed by ST households (70%). For both the sectors the literacy rate was the highest for persons belonging to social group ‘others'.
It is seen that the literacy rate was rather low for both males and females in rural India for ‘Islam' compared to other religions. ‘Hinduism' and ‘others' are not much better, especially for females. In urban India, the literacy rate was 88-89% for males following three religions, namely, Hinduism, Sikhism and Buddhism. Further, males who followed Christianity or Jainism had a still higher rate of literacy, 94% or more. Here also ‘Islam' shows a lower literacy rate. The picture is similar for females in urban areas.
In rural areas, gender disparity in literacy rate was very large for Hinduism and Islam, compared to other religions. The pattern was similar to some extent in urban areas, but here the gender disparities were generally smaller.
Among the rural areas of 15 major states, Rajasthan and Madhya Pradesh showed the highest increase in literacy rate for males and females over 1993-94 to 1999-2000. The increase was by 9% for males and by 10% for females. For females, there was one more major state, namely, Maharashtra, for which the increase in literacy rate was 10%. Among urban areas of the major states, the increase over 1993-94 to 1999-2000 was more than the national increase in urban areas of Karnataka, Rajasthan, Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu.
Among the major States, the rural literacy rate for all persons was the highest in Kerala. It was around 90% in both the NSS rounds-50th and 55th. The second highest literacy rate among the rural areas of major States was found for Assam (69%). The rate was the lowest for Bihar (42%) followed by Andhra Pradseh (46%) and Rajasthan (47%). The literacy rate was also relatively low (between 50 and 60%) in the rural areas of the following States: Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Orissa and Uttar Pradesh.
In urban India, the literacy rate was distinctly low for casual labour households compared to other households. It was 59% (593 out of 1000) of persons belonging to casual labour households compared to the national average of 80%. For the remaining household types, the proportions of literates among males, females or persons were the highest for regular wage /salary earning households.
In urban areas the variation of literacy rates across States/UT's was much smaller compared to the rural areas. It ranged from 70% to 99% over the urban areas of different States and UTs while it varied from 42-91% in rural areas. The urban literacy rate (%)was very high in Kerala (94), Meghalaya (92), Mizoram (99), Nagaland (94) and relatively low in Andhra Pradesh (75), Bihar (70), Orissa (76), Punjab (79) and Uttar Pradesh (70).
Out of a total of 32 States and UTs, there were only 8 where the rural literacy rate was 80% and above. These States and UTs were Goa, Kerala, Mizoram, Nagaland, Andaman & Nicobar Islands, Daman and Diu, Delhi and Lakshadweep.
At the national level, literacy rate (%) increased during the period from 1993-94 to 1999-2000. For males, it increased from 63 to 68 in rural areas and from 85 to 87 in urban areas. For females, the corresponding figures were 36 and 43 in rural areas and 68 and 72 in urban areas. The figures for persons were 50 and 56 in rural areas and 77 and 80 in urban areas
At the national level, the difference in census and NSS estimates of literacy was 3% for both males and females. For rural males, NSS literacy rate was 73% while census literacy rate was 76%. Similarly, for females NSS estimate was 51% and the census estimate was 54%.
The difference in literacy rate between NSS 55th round and Census 2001 was roughly similar for males and females for any State/UT. For persons, the absolute difference in literacy rate was more than 5% in Andhra Pradesh, Assam, Madhya Pradesh, Mizoram, Nagaland, Orissa and Rajasthan and was less than 2% in Arunachal Pradesh, Gujarat, Kerala, Chandigarh, Lakshadweep and Pondicherry.
Progress in Elementary Education since 1999
Source: RGI; SES, MHRD
Growth of Educational Institutions since 1999
Source: SES, MHRD
From the table below, one can decipher that although enrolment of both boys and girls has increased in between 1999-2000 and 2004-2005, yet there exist gender disparities in enrolment.
Sex-wise Enrolment by Stages, 1999-2000 to 2003-04
Source: SES, MHRD *Provisional
Seminar Report "Right to Education - Actions Now" 19 December 2007, New Delhi by Confederation of Indian Industry show:
Access facilities in the upper primary schooling is, however, still an issue as, only 78% of the habitations had such facilities within a radius of 3 Km. In 2002-03. This catered to the need of 86% of the rural population. Nearly, 88,930 new upper primary schools have been opened since 2002-03. However, a gap still remains.
In Madhya Pradesh, only one third of the teachers attend school, in UP, the figure is 20% and in Bihar 25%.
There is a need of more upper primary schools. At the national level, there was one upper primary school for 2.8 primary schools in 2004-05. In 2005-06 this ratio of number of primary to upper primary schools was 2.5:1. To bring the ratio of primary: upper primary school to 2:1 (SSA norm), the additional need for upper primary schools works out to 1,40,000.”
The dropout rates were 15% in 2002-03, which reduced to 13% in 2003-04 and further reduced to 12% in 2004-2005. Although the trend is encouraging, concerted efforts would be needed to ensure further reduction.
In absolute terms, a substantial increase in the number of teachers has been registered since 1999-2000. At the primary stage, there were 19.2 lakh teachers in 1999-2000. This increased to 20.9 lakh in 2003-04. With respect to the upper primary stage, this increased from 12.98 lakh to 16.02 lakh
The government has set up institutions like Sarva Shiksha Abhiyaan (SSA), District Primary Education programme (DPEP), National Programme of Nutritional Support to Primary Education (NP-NSPE), the Mid Day Meal Scheme (MDMS) and the Kasturba Gandhi Balika Vidyalaya Scheme (KGBVS).
According to the UNESCO Institute for Statistics:
40% of children are enrolled in pre-primary school
87% of girls and 90% of boys are in primary school
12% of the population of tertiary age are in tertiary education
86% of children complete a full course of primary
10.7% of government spending goes to education
65.2% of adults and 81.3% of youth are literate
Education at a glance
Youth (15–24 years) literacy rate, 2000–2007*, male 87
Youth (15–24 years) literacy rate, 2000–2007*, female 77
Number per 100 population, 2006, phones 15
Number per 100 population, 2006, Internet users 11
Primary school enrolment ratio 2000–2007*, gross, male 90
Primary school enrolment ratio 2000–2007*, gross, female 87
Primary school attendance ratio 2000–2007*, net, male 85
Primary school attendance ratio 2000–2007*, net, female 81
Secondary school enrolment ratio 2000–2007*, gross, male 59
Secondary school enrolment ratio 2000–2007*, gross, female 49
Secondary school attendance ratio 2000–2007*, net, male 59
Secondary school attendance ratio 2000–2007*, net, female 49
Note: Enrolment ratio means total enrolment in a specific level of education, regardless of age, expressed as a percentage of the eligible official school-age population corresponding to the same level of education in a given school year. For the tertiary level, the population used is that of the five-year age group following on from the secondary school leaving
Source: UNICEF, http://www.unicef.org/infobycountry/india_statistics.html