Human Rights


According to the report entitled Crime in India 2016 Statistics (released in November, 2017), which has been published by the National Crime Records Bureau, http://ncrb.gov.in/ :

Human Rights Violation

• At the national-level, the total number of cases registered against police personnel for human rights violation was 209 in 2016. However, 73 cases were found to be false. The total number of police personnel charge-sheeted for human rights violation was 50 in that year. No police personnel was convicted for human rights violation in 2016.

• The total number of criminal cases registered against police personnel during 2016 was 3082 at the national-level.

• At the national-level, the total number of deaths in police custody was 92 in 2016, out of which 8 can be attributed to injuries sustained during the police custody due to physical assault by police, 1 can be attributed to injuries sustained prior to police custody, 1 can be attributed to mob attack/ riots, 2 can be attributed to assault by other criminals, 38 can be attributed to suicide, 4 can be attributed to while escaping from police custody, 28 can be attributed to illness, 7 can be attributed to natural deaths, 1 can be attributed to road accident/ journey connected to investigation, and 2 can be attributed to other reasons.

• The total number of death or disappearance reported in police custody/ lockup (of persons not remanded to police custody by Court) during 2016 was 60. The total number of policemen convicted for death or disappearance in police custody/ lockup (of persons not remanded to police custody by Court) was zero in 2016.

• The total number of death or disappearance reported in police custody/ lockup (of persons remanded to police custody by Court) during 2016 was 32. The total number of policemen convicted for death or disappearance in police custody/ lockup (of persons remanded to police custody by Court) was zero in 2016.

• The total number of civilians killed and injured during police firing in 2016 was 92 and 351, respectively.

• The total number of civilians killed and injured during police lathi-charge in 2016 was 35 and 759, respectively.

Crime against women

• The rate of total cognizable crime committed against women in India has been 55.2 in 2016, which was 54.2 in 2015. The rate of total cognizable Crime against women = (Incidences of Crimes against Women divided by Female Population) multiplied by 100000 i.e. Incidence of Crime per one lakh of Female Population

• In terms of percentage share to total crime cases (IPC+SLL) against women in 2016, most were committed in Uttar Pradesh (14.5 percent), followed by West Bengal (9.6 percent), Maharashtra (9.3 percent) and Rajasthan (8.1 percent).

• Among the states, the rate of total cognizable crimes committed against women in 2016 has been the highest in Assam (131.3 crimes per lakh women population), followed by Odisha (84.5) and Telangana (83.7). Among the Union Territories (UTs), the rate of total cognizable crimes committed against women has been the highest in Delhi UT (160.4 in 2016).

• The rate of cognizable crime relating to rape has been the highest in Sikkim (30.3), followed by Delhi UT (22.6) and Arunachal Pradesh (14.7). In 94.6 percent of rape cases (under Section 376 IPC and Section 376 IPC read with Section 4 & 6 of POCSO Act) during 2016, the offenders were known to the victims.

• The rate of cognizable crime relating to rape has been 6.3 in 2016 at the national level. The number of such cases reported has been 38,947 in 2016.

• The number of rape cases reported has increased by 12.4 percent from 34,651 cases in 2015 to 38,947 in 2016. Madhya Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh reported the highest incidence of rape with 4,882 cases (12.5 percent) and 4,816 (12.4 percent) respectively, followed by 4,189 such cases in Maharashtra (10.7 percent) during 2016.

• The rate of cognizable crime relating to 'Assault on Women with intent to outrage her Modesty' has been 13.8 in 2016. The number of such cases reported has been 84,746 in 2016.

• The rate of cognizable crime relating to 'Cruelty by Husband or his Relatives' has been 18.0 in 2016. The number of such cases reported has been 1,10,378 in 2016.

• The cases under Crimes Against Women have reported an increase of 2.9 percent in 2016 (3,38,954) over 2015 (3,29,243). The majority of cases under crimes against women were reported under ‘Cruelty by Husband or His Relatives’ (32.6 percent), followed by ‘Assault on Women with Intent to Outrage her Modesty’ (25.0 percent), ‘Kidnaping & Abduction of Women’ (19.0 percent) and ‘Rape’ (11.5 percent).

Crime against children

• The rate of total cognizable crime committed against children in India has increased from 20.1 in 2014 to 21.1 in 2015 and further to 24.0 percent in 2016. The rate of total cognizable Crime against children = (Total Incidences of Crimes against children divided by Children Population) multiplied by 100000 i.e. Incidence of Crime per one lakh of Children Population

• The rate of total cognizable crime committed against children in 2016 has been the highest in Delhi UT (146.0), followed by Andaman & Nicobar Islands (61.4), Chandigarh (55.5) and Sikkim (55.0).

• The number of cases reported on infanticide has been the highest in Uttar Pradesh (21) followed by Rajasthan and Madhya Pradesh (both 14) during 2016. The number of cases reported about foeticide has been the highest in Uttar Pradesh (52) followed by Rajasthan (21) and Madhya Pradesh (19) during 2016.

• Crimes against children have shown an increasing trend over the past 3 years with a significant increase of 13.6 percent (1,06,958) in 2016 over (94,172) 2015. Kidnapping and abduction of children accounted for 52.3 percent of the cases, followed by cases reported under Protection of Children from Sexual Offences (POCSO) Act i.e. 34.4 percent.

 

• Out of the total victims trafficked in 2016 (i.e. 15,379), nearly 58.7 percent victims (male: 4,123; female: 4,911) were below 18 years.

• Most number of victims below 18 years who were trafficked in 2016 belonged to the state of West Bengal (3,113), followed by Rajasthan (2,519) and Uttar Pradesh (822)

• Out of the total victims of rape in 2016 (i.e. 39,068), nearly 1.3 percent victims were below 6 years, 4.1 percent victims were 6 years & above but below 12 years, 15.6 percent victims were 12 years & above but below 16 Years, and 22.2 percent victims were 16 years & above but below 18 Years. It means that 43.2 percent of total rape victims in 2016 were aged below 18 years.  

Crime against Scheduled Castes (SCs) and Scheduled Tribes (STs)

• The rate of total cognizable crime committed against SCs in India has declined from 20.1 in 2014 to 19.2 in 2015 but increased to 20.3 in 2016. The rate of total cognizable Crime against SCs = (Total cases reported under crime against SCs divided by Total Population of SCs) multiplied by 100000 i.e. Incidence of Crime per one lakh population of SCs.

• The rate of total cognizable crime committed against SCs in 2016 has been the highest in Madhya Pradesh (43.4), followed by Rajasthan (42.0) and Goa (36.7).

• The atrocities/ crime against Scheduled Castes have increased by 5.5 percent in 2016 (40,801) over 2015 (38,670).

• In terms of percentage share to total crime against SCs in 2016, most were committed in Uttar Pradesh (25.6 percent), followed by Bihar (14.0 percent) and Rajasthan (12.6 percent).

• The rate of total cognizable crime committed against STs in India has fallen from 6.5 in 2014 to 6.0 in 2015 but increased to 6.3 percent in 2016. The rate of total cognizable Crime against STs = (Total cases reported under crime against STs divided by Total Population of STs) multiplied by 100000 i.e. Incidence of Crime per one lakh population of STs.

• The rate of total cognizable crime committed against STs in 2016 has been the highest in Kerala (37.5), followed by Andaman & Nicobar Islands (21.0) and Andhra Pradesh (15.4).

• Atrocities/ Crime Against Scheduled Tribes have increased by 4.7 percent in 2016 (6,568) over 2015 (6,276).

• In terms of percentage share to total crime against STs in 2016, most were committed in Madhya Pradesh (27.8 percent), followed by Rajasthan (18.2 percent) and Odisha (10.4 percent).

Note:

• The National Crime Records Bureau follows ‘Principal Offence Rule’ for counting of crime. Hence among many offences covered in a single registered criminal case, only most heinous crime in the registered case has been considered as counting unit representing that case. Hence, there is likelihood of some Indian Penal Code (IPC)/ Special & Local Laws (SLL) cases getting under reported as they are hidden under major IPC crimes i.e. Murder with Rape is accounted as Murder & Dowry Prohibition Act when applied along with 304B of IPC will be counted as Dowry Death only.

• The Principle Offence Rule is not applicable for chapters of Crimes against Women, Crimes Against Children, Crimes Against SC/ST, juveniles in conflict with law, crime against senior citizens etc.
 


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