Social Justice

KEY TRENDS

 

• Occupational vulnerability, stated by the Hashim Committee, comes about due to the ‘fact that the large majority of the urban poor are trapped in low end jobs—insecure, low paid, low productivity with debilitating work conditions—mainly in the informal sector.’ Third party interventions in the job market based on commissions, lack of social protection at work, seasonal casual employment (like fishing) and so forth are major reasons for vulnerability. Some of the occupations falling under this category are noted to include ‘daily wage workers, construction labour, petty traders, hawkers, street children, sex-workers, rickshaw-puller[s], domestic workers, etc.’ @@

•  The proportion of rural households with regular wage/salary earning as the major source was the highest among 'others' or forward caste category (13.3%), followed by OBC (9%), SC (8.5%) and ST (6.3%) during July 2011 - June 2012 @

•  The proportion of rural households with casual labour as the major source of income was much higher among SC (52.6%) and ST (38.3%) than among the OBC (32.1%) and general class (21%) during July 2011 - June 2012 @

• The percentage of households using LPG/PNG was just 9.2% among STs as compared to 16.9% among SCs and 28.5% among all households in 2011 *

• Access to banking services is found to have more than doubled - an increase from 19% (in 2001) to 45% (in 2011) among STs and from 25% (in 2001) to 51% (in 2011) among SCs *

• Access to television has increased from 12% (in 2001) to 21.8% (in 2011) among STs and from 21.2% (in 2001) to 39.1% (in 2011) among SCs *

• Access to telephone has decreased from 2.5% (in 2001) to 1.9% (in 2011) among STs and from 3.4% (in 2001) to 3.0% (in 2011) among SCs *

• The incidence of poverty in rural areas during 2009-10 among dalits (SCs) is 31.7%, adivasis (STs) is 33.8% and Muslims is 25.6% while the same among the entire population is 23.7% as per the India Public Policy Report 2014 (based on NSS data) **

• The incidence of poverty in urban areas during 2009-10 among dalits (SCs) is 31.0%, adivasis (STs) is 34.3% and Muslims is 37.1% while the same among the entire population is 23.2% as per the India Public Policy Report 2014 (based on NSS data) **

• NSSO data for 2009-10 shows that 92.1 per cent of Scheduled Castes (SCs) in rural areas were landless or had landholdings of one hectare or less. This has led to a preponderance of SCs in casual labour. NSSO statistics indicate that in 2009-10, 76.5 per cent of Scheduled Tribe (ST) households in rural areas were either landless or had less than 1 hectare of land. The share of tribal households with small and marginal landholdings has been steadily increasing over time **

• Among the poorest 20% households, proportion of out-of-pocket healthcare expenses in the total expenditure rose from 3.21% in 2000 to 4.12% in 2012 while among the richest 20% households, the same increased from 7.18% in 2000 to 8.52% in 2012 #

• The share of out-of-pocket in total household spending increased sharply among Muslims (relative to non-Muslims) during 2000-2012 in all three of the indicators of OOP shares - outpatient care, inpatient care and overall - so their OOP spending burden also increased #

• Among the SC/ST households, proportion of out-of-pocket healthcare expenses in the total expenditure rose from 5.23% in 2000 to 6.57% in 2012 while among the Muslim households, the same increased from 5.49% in 2000 to 7.02% in 2012 #

• Only 22.6 percent ST households have latrine facility within the premises as compared to 46.9 percent households belonging to all social groups. Roughly 74.7 percent ST households practice open defecation as compared to 49.8 percent households belonging to all social groups (based on Census 2011)  ## 

 

@@ India Exclusion Report 2015, prepared by Centre for Equity Studies in collaboration with various organizations, (please click here to access the report) 

 

@ NSS 68th Round Report: Employment and Unemployment Situation among Social Groups in India 2011-12 (released in January 2015) (kindly click here to access the report)

 

* Conditions of SC/ST Households: A Story of Unequal Improvement by RB Bhagat, Economic and Political Weekly, October 12, 2013, Vol xlviiI 62 no. 41 (Please click here to download)

 

** India Exclusion Report 2013-14 (Please click here to download)

 

# Moving to Universal Coverage? Trends in the Burden of Out-Of-Pocket Payments for Health Care across Social Groups in India, 1999-2000 to 2011-12 by Anup Karan, Sakthivel Selvaraj and Ajay Mahal, Plos One Journal, August 15, 2014 (please click here to access)

 

## Tribal Profile at a Glance (May 2013), Ministry of Tribal Affairs, Government of India (please click here to download)




Related Articles

 

Write Comments

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

*

Video Archives

Archives

share on Facebook
Twitter
RSS
Feedback
Read Later