Govt. needs to take a realistic view of skilled manpower

Govt. needs to take a realistic view of skilled manpower


The Skill India Mission was launched by the Prime Minister Shri Narendra Modi on 15 July, 2015 with much fanfare. However, a new report from the Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation (MoSPI) informs us that among persons aged 15 years and above, only 2.4 percent had technical degrees, diplomas or certificates in 2011-12.

Based on the 68th round of National Sample Survey (NSS), the report says that the proportion of persons (aged 15 years and above) having technical degrees, diplomas or certificates was a meagre 1.1 percent in rural areas and 5.5 percent in urban areas. This shows the rural-urban gap in technical education.

As per the report entitled Status of Education and Vocational Training in India, there exists gender difference in technical education. The proportion of females with technical education has been lower than among males – nearly 0.5 percent of females as compared to 1.6 percent of males in rural areas, and 3.3 percent of females as compared to 7.6 percent of males in urban areas had technical education. However, the Skill India Mission does not address this problem effectively.

It needs to be mentioned that as per the report, technical education includes a degree in professional education like engineering, medicine, agriculture, etc., a diploma or certificate in agriculture, engineering/ technology, medicine, crafts, etc.

The MoSPI report has also shed light on the dismal state of skill-oriented, vocational education in India. It has found that among persons aged 15-59 years, about 2.2 percent reported to have received formal vocational training and 8.6 percent reported to have received non-formal vocational training.

As per the report, vocational training that took place in educational and training institutions, which followed a structured training programme and led to certificates, diplomas or degrees, recognised by State/ Central Government, Public Sector and other reputed concerns, was considered as formal vocational training. Non-formal vocational training included skill acquired by heredity, self-learning, learning on the job etc.  
 
In rural areas, nearly 1.6 percent of males as opposed to 0.9 percent of females, and in urban areas, nearly 5 percent of males as compared to 3.3 percent of females reported to have received formal vocational training.

In rural areas, 1.3 percent of persons aged 15-59 years reported to have received formal vocational training whereas in urban areas the figure was much higher i.e. 4.2 percent.  

Clearly, with such low levels of technical education and vocational training among people, it will be an upheal task to make Skill India Mission a success.

It has been observed that among the persons who received/were receiving formal vocational training (aged 15-59 years), nearly 58.3 percent were employed, 5.9 percent were unemployed and 35.8 percent were not in labour force (i.e. being not engaged in any economic activity or work and also not available for work).

Among the persons who received/ were receiving formal vocational training (aged 15-59 years), nearly 25.1 percent received/ were receiving in 'computer trades', 12.2 percent received/ were receiving training in driving and motor mechanic work, 11.2 percent received/ were receiving training in electrical and electronic engineering trades, and 10.7 percent received/ were receiving training in textile related work.

A recent Government document shows that an estimated 4.69 percent of India’s total workforce (as per 68th round of NSS) has undergone formal skill training as compared with 52 percent in the United States, 68 percent in the United Kingdom, 75 percent in Germany, 80 percent in Japan and 96 percent in South Korea.

Various experts have noted that the country is witnessing skill shortage at present. Based on the Census 2011 and NSSO (68th Round) data, it has been estimated that 104 million fresh entrants to the workforce will require skill training by 2022, and 298 million of the existing workforce will require additional skill training over the same time period, says the Government document.

The Skill India Mission has, therefore, set a target to provide skill training to around 402 million people (i.e. 40.2 crore people) by 2022.

Some of the key findings of the report entitled Status of Education and Vocational Training in India relating to the estimates on literacy, attainment of general and technical education, current attendance in educational institutions, vocational training received etc. in India, are stated below:

A. Households without any literate members

• In about 18.2 percent of households in rural areas and 5.9 percent in urban areas, there was not a single member in the age-group 15 years and above who could read and write a simple message with understanding.

B. Literacy rate among persons of age 7 years and above

• In India, the literacy rate was 74.7 percent during 2011-12.

• The literacy rate was 70 percent in rural areas and 86 percent in urban areas.

• About 79.1 percent of rural males and 60.6 percent of rural females were literate. In urban areas, the literacy rates were 91.1 percent for males and 80.3 percent for females.
 
C. Technical education among persons of 15 years and above

• Among persons of age 15 years and above, only 2.4 percent had technical degrees or diplomas or certificates. The proportion was 1.1 percent in rural areas and 5.5 percent in urban areas.

• Among those who had technical education, a higher percentage had diploma in technical education instead of degree: 91.9 percent in rural areas and 80.2 percent in urban areas had diploma in technical education.

D. Current attendance in educational institution among persons of age 5-29 years

• About 57.7 percent of people in the age group 5-29 years were estimated as ‘currently attending’ educational institutions. In rural areas, 57.4 percent of the persons of age 5-29 years currently attended educational institutions compared to 58.5 percent in urban areas.

• Among persons of age 5-29 years, about 64.5per cent were currently attending ‘Government and local body educational institutions’, 22.5 percent were currently attending private unaided institutions and 12.3 percent were currently attending private aided institutions.

Reason for currently not attending any educational institution for persons of age 5-29 years who ever attended any educational institution

• While ‘to supplement household income’ was the main reason for more than 70 percent of males for currently not attending any educational institution, ‘to attend domestic chores’ was the single reason for the same for more than half of females

Reason for currently not attending any educational institution for persons of age 5-29 years who never attended any educational institution

• About 27 percent in rural areas and 26.4 percent in urban areas reported that they never attended any educational institution as ‘education not considered necessary’

• About 3.6 percent in rural areas and 3.4 percent in urban areas reported that they never attended any educational institution as the schools were too far.

• In rural areas 24.7 percent of males and 28.4 percent of females and in urban areas, 22.9 percent of males and 29 percent of females reported the reason ‘education not considered necessary’ for never attending educational institution.

• Among males, nearly 25 percent in rural areas and 33.2 percent in urban areas reported the reason ‘to supplement household income’ while among females, nearly 29.3 per cent in rural areas and 28.1 per cent in urban areas reported the reason ‘to attend domestic chores’ for never attending educational institution.

E. Vocational Training among persons of age 15-59 years

• Among persons of age 15-59 years, about 2.2 percent reported to have received formal vocational training and 8.6 percent reported to have received non-formal vocational training.

• In rural areas, nearly 1.6 percent of males compared to 0.9 percent of females and in urban areas, nearly 5 percent of males compared to 3.3 percent of females reported to have received formal vocational training.

• In rural areas, nearly 11.1 percent of males compared to 5.5 percent of females and in urban areas, nearly 13.7 percent of males compared to 4.3 percent of females reported to have received non-formal vocational training.

• Among rural males who received/ were receiving formal vocational training, the share was the highest (22.3 percent) for field of training ‘driving and motor mechanic work’ while among urban males it was the highest for ‘computer trades’ (26.3 percent).

• Among rural females, who received/ were receiving formal vocational training the share was the highest for ‘textile related work’ (32.2 percent) while among the urban females it was the highest for computer trades’ (30.4 percent).


References

Status of Education and Vocational Training in India, NSS 68 Round (July 2011-June 2012), released in September 2015, please click here to access

Prime Minister Launches SKILL INDIA on the Occasion of World Youth Skills Day, Press Information Bureau/ Ministry of Skill Development and Entrepreneurship, 15 July, 2015, http://pib.nic.in/newsite/PrintRelease.aspx?relid=123296   

National Skill Development Mission, Press Information Bureau, 2 July, 2015, http://pib.nic.in/newsite/PrintRelease.aspx?relid=122929  

Skilling India at scale, with MOOCs-Austin Thomas, The Financial Express, 5 October, 2015, please click here to access

Uphill task for Skill India mission -Rukmini S, The Hindu, 24 September, 2015, please click here to access
 
Why Modi’s new Skill India mission will mean nothing for workers -Anumeha Yadav, Scroll.in, 19 July, 2015, please click here to access

Narendra Modi’s ambitious Skill India Mission targets 40.2 crore workers by 2022 -Surabhi, The Indian Express, 15 July, 2015, please click here to access
 
Image Courtesy: Himanshu Joshi



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