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The Unrealistic Optimism of Indians on Prospects of Upward Social Mobility -Ranjan Ray

ussing on income, which is an output, and not on the range of inputs that generate the income, we are in danger of overlooking the source of the problem. There was an early recognition of this in the Human Development Report (HDR), 1990 that introduced the measure, Human Development Index (HDI), used to rank countries. HDI downplayed the exclusive role played by income in per capita income based comparis

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See SDGs as a policy framework, not as a document -Amitabh Behar

ties, and does not need to look for enemies outside. The problems need to be dealt with on an urgent basis. It is imperative that the concept of development is well understood. For example, in our Human Development index, we have set aside environment. How can development be holistic without the environment? The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) offer that complete framework. In 2015, the United Nations set 17 goals for countries to achieve b

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NYAY is an important first step toward social justice -Vani S Kulkarni and Raghav Gaiha

life expectancy, and a lonely widow may be unable to overcome ostracisation and depression. We use a unique all-India panel survey of income distributions for 2005 and 2012, reported in the India Human Development Survey, 2015, to address the central question. Three per capita income categories are considered: (i)<20%, (ii) 21-50%, and (iii) above 50%, designated as poorest, moderately better-off and (relatively) affluent, respectively. All

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The anatomy of India's middle class -Nikita Kwatra

o define the middle class. In doing so, Aslany borrows from the ideologies of three major theorists of class: Karl Marx, Max Weber and Pierre Bourdieu. Using this framework and data from the India Human Development Survey (2011–12) at the all-India level, Aslany profiles India’s population into different class groups. For instance, Aslyn captures the ‘lifestyle’ aspect of middle-class using data on a household’s consum

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How electrification empowers Indian women -Nikita Kwatra

ly for India’s economic growth but also in empowering women in rural areas, according to a new World Bank study. In the study, Hussain Samad and Fan Zhang analyse data from the 2011-12 India Human Development Survey, covering more than 40,000 households and 200,000 individuals, and find that access to electricity is associated with significant improvement in women empowerment. The authors measure empowerment through an index that captures

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NYAY: No bridge between two Indias -R Ramakumar

oduced high levels of economic growth. However, two associated outcomes were strikingly visible. First, the growth of incomes did not lead to an appreciable fall in absolute poverty or improvement in Human Development indicators. Secondly, the growth of incomes was deeply unequal in its spread. Since 2000, according to the estimates of the World Inequality Lab (WIL)—whose “core mission is to maintain and expand the World Inequality Databas

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Universal basic income not a panacea for poverty -Piyush Kamal

inclusiveness of the growth despite dispensing a long list of welfare schemes to target the economically marginalised section of the population. We do not need to look beyond the findings of 2018 Human Development Index (HDI) released by the United Nations Development Programme for validation. Between 1990 and 2017, India’s HDI value increased from 0.427 to 0.640, an almost 50 per cent increase, which is “an indicator that millions hav

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UP, Bihar continue to be down in the dumps in HDI: Report

d the pack on the crucial measure, where the country is ranked 130th globally, but are staring at a different trouble, the report notes. Mumbai: Uttar Pradesh and Bihar continue to languish on the Human Development index (HDI) front, while others, including Haryana and Himachal, have shown an improvement in the past 27 years, says a report. The industrially progressive Gujarat and Maharashtra have slipped in the HDI ranking between 1990 and 2017

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A strange paradox for Indian women -Sonalde Desai

, mornings and afternoons are brightened by the smiling faces of girls and young women, dressed in their uniforms, walking to school. Almost all girls go to primary school and, according to the India Human Development Survey (IHDS) of 2011-12, 70% of girls aged 15 to 18 are still studying, only five percentage points less than boys. They frequently outperform boys. In 2018, in the Class XII CBSE examination, 88.31% girls passed, compared to 78.99% boy

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Quota, old plus new -Christophe Jaffrelot & Kalaiyarasan A

ered by a few jatis at the expense of those who “really need them”. Among Dalits, the Jatavs of Uttar Pradesh and the Mahars of Maharashtra have been targeted by such critiques. The India Human Development Survey, and its last two rounds of 2004-05 and 2011-12, helps us assess the limitations of such a discourse which, usually, does not rely on any solid data. In terms of their annual per capita mean income (APCMI), Jatavs are not at al

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