• There are 918 females to 1000 males in the age-group 0-6 years, with maximum disparity in sex ratio* of rural & urban area existing in Daman & Diu and Gujarat having lesser females in urban Area.
• As per National Sample Survey 68th Round (2011-12), 11.5% of total households in rural and 12.4% in urban were female headed households as compared to 9.7% and 10.6% during 1993-94.
• Crude Birth Rate* and General Fertility Rate (GFR)* have reduced from 21.8 in 2011 to 21.6 in 2012 and 81.2 to 80.3 respectively.
• Total fertility Rate (TFR)* has also gone down from 2.8 in 2011 to 2.2 in 2012. TFR is more for illiterate women both in rural and urban area and decreases with increase in educational level.
Literacy and Education
• The Gross Enrolment Ratio (GER)* for females at the primary level stood at 102.65 compared with 100.20 for males in 2013-14. At the middle class level, the GER for females is 92.75 against 86.31 for males and at the higher secondary level, 51.58 and 52.77 is the gross enrolment ratio for females and males during 2013-14.
• There were 93 girls per 100 boys in primary classes, 95 in middles classes and 90 in secondary classes during 2013-14.
Participation in Economy
• As per Census 2011, the workforce participation rate* for females is 25.51% against 53.26% for males. Rural sector has a better female workforce participation rate of 30.02% compared with 53.03% for males in urban sector. The participation rate of females trails at 15.44% against 53.76% for males. 41.1% of female main and marginal workers are agricultural labourers, 24.0% are cultivators, 5.7% are household industry workers and 29.2% are engaged in other works.
• Only 20.5% women were employed in the organized sector in 2011 with 18.1% working in the public sector and 24.3% in the private. The labour force participation rate for women across all age groups was 25.3 in rural sector and 15.5 in urban sector compared with 55.3 and 56.3 for men in the rural and urban sectors respectively in 2011-12 (NSS 68th Round).
Participation in Decision Making
• In 2014, women occupied only 7 out of 45 Ministerial positions in the Central Council of Ministers, which is a little more than 15%, against around 10% women participation in 2004. 62 females have been elected in 2014 Elections constituting more than 11% share in the Lower House.
• In the states, women share is only 8% in assemblies and only 4% in State Councils.
• In the Panchayat setup, overall 46.7% women are present; with maximum 58.6% in Jharkhand and minimum 32.3% in Goa as on 1st March, 2013.
Social Obstacles in Women's Empowerment
• ‘Cruelty by husband and relatives’ continues to have the highest share (38%) followed by ‘assault on women with intent to outrage her modesty’ (23%). There has been a phenomenal increase (157%) in reporting of 'Indecent Representation of Women' Cases in 2013 over 2012. Five percent of the total cognizable crime falls under the category of crime against women in 2013 against 4% in 2012.
• The number of rape case victims had increased 90% in the age group of 50+ whereas 5% of all rape victims were under 10 years of age. 13% of the rape victims were in the state of Madhya Pradesh in 2013 and 46% of the total rape victims in India were in the age-group 18-30 years in 2013.
International Gender Perspective of Development Indicators
• Life Expectancy at birth* is best in Japan for men as well as women and worst in Afghanistan. Both the countries continue similar trends in life expectancy at 60 years of age.
• United States has largest (43%) women's share of legislators, senior officials and manager, while Pakistan has only 3% women as legislators, senior officials and manager.