Water and Sanitation

Water and Sanitation

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According to the Economic Survey 2015-16, Ministry of Finance (Volume 1 , Volume 2):

• The Census of India 2011 informs that around 70 percent of India’s population (650 million) lives in rural and slum areas. It increases the possibility of exposure of the population to water-borne and vector-borne diseases

• Only 46.6 percent of households in India have access to drinking water within their premises. A far lower, 43.5 percent of households have access to tap water. Similarly, less than 50 percent households have latrine facilities within the household premises.

• While access and coverage of latrine facilities is as high as 95 percent in Kerala, 91 percent in Mizoram and 89 percent in Manipur, less than 25 percent of households have access to latrine facilities within the household premises in Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand and Odisha.

• As per Census 2011, Bihar (77), Chhattisgarh (75), Jharkhand (78) and Odisha (78) are states with more than 75 percent households having no latrine facilities at all.

• The Swachh Bharat Mission (Gramin) is accelerating efforts to achieve universal sanitation coverage and eliminate open defecation in India by 2 October 2019. It also aims to promote better hygiene amongst the population and improve cleanliness by initiating Solid and Liquid Waste Management (SLWM) projects in villages, towns and cities.

• The progress in sanitation has witnessed a spurt since the launch of the Swachh Bharat Mission. In its first year, i.e. from 2 October 2014 to 2 October 2015, 88 lakh toilets were constructed, against an expected outcome of 60 lakhs. More than 122 lakh toilets have already been constructed in rural areas so far under the mission. Sanitation coverage, which stood at 40.60 percent as per NSSO data, has risen to around 48.8 percent as on 31 December 2015.

• According to WHO and UNICEF Joint Monitoring Programme estimates, 61 percent of rural Indians defecate in the open in 2015, compared with only 32 per cent of rural people in sub-Saharan Africa. Even sanitation laggards perform better than India, with 17 percent rural open defecation in Afghanistan and 15 percent in Kenya.

• In order to improve availability of drinking water in rural areas, the National Rural Drinking Water Programme (NRDWP) initiated a new project supported by the World Bank, the ‘Rural Water Supply and Sanitation Project–Low Income States’ with a total cost of Rs. 6000 crore. The project aims to provide safe, 24 x 7 piped drinking water supply to 7.8 million rural population in four low-income States--Assam, Bihar, Uttar Pradesh and Jharkhand--that have the lowest piped water supply and sanitation facilities. As on 31 December 2015, the project has implemented 275 single and multi-village piped drinking water supply schemes through the decentralized delivery mechanism of empowered Gram Panchayat Water and Sanitation Committees.


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