Water and Sanitation
According to the United Nations' report entitled: Progress on drinking water and sanitation, Joint Monitoring Programme update 2014 (released in May 2014), (Please click here to download):
• Between 1990 and 2012, India increased access to improved drinking water source for 534 million people.
• There are 92 million people in India and 112 million people in China without access to an improved drinking water source in 2012.
• Between 1990 and 2012, India increased access to improved sanitation for 291 million people.
• There are 792 million people in India and 478 million people in China without access to an improved sanitation facility in 2012.
• Globally, India continues to be the country with the highest number of people (597 million people) practicing open defecation.
• Despite having some of the highest numbers of open defecators, India (597 million people), Nigeria (39 million people) and Indonesia (54 million people) do not feature among those countries making the greatest strides in reducing open defecation.
• The percentage of population practicing open defecation in India declined from 74 percent in 1990 to 63 percent in 2000 and further to 48 percent in 2012.
• The percentage of population having access to improved sanitation in India rose from 18 percent in 1990 to 25 percent in 2000 and further to 36 percent in 2012.
• The percentage of population having access to improved sanitation in rural India was 25 percent whereas in urban India it was 60 percent during 2012.
• The percentage of population having access to improved drinking water source in India rose from 70 percent in 1990 to 81 percent in 2000 and further to 93 percent in 2012.
• The percentage of population having access to improved drinking water source in rural India was 91 percent whereas in urban India it was 97 percent during 2012.
• Since 1990, almost 2 billion people globally have gained access to improved sanitation, and 2.3 billion have gained access to drinking-water from improved sources.
• Some 1.6 billion of these people have piped water connections in their homes or compounds.
• More than half of the global population lives in cities, and urban areas are still better supplied with improved water and sanitation than rural ones. But the gap is decreasing. In 1990, more than 76% people living in urban areas had access to improved sanitation, as opposed to only 28% in rural ones. By 2012, 80% urban dwellers and 47% rural ones had access to better sanitation.
• In 1990, 95% people in urban areas could drink improved water, compared with 62% people in rural ones. By 2012, 96% people living in towns and 82% of those in rural areas had access to improved water.
• By 2012, 116 countries had met the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) target for drinking water, 77 had met the MDG target for sanitation and 56 countries had met both targets. MDG 7.C aims to halve, by 2015, the proportion of the population without sustainable access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation.
• By the end of 2012, 89% of the global population used improved drinking water sources, a rise of 13 percentage points in 22 years or 2.3 billion people.
• By the end of 2012, 64% of the global population used improved sanitation facilities, a rise of 15 percentage points since 1990. Some 2.5 billion people – two-thirds of whom live in Asia, and a quarter in sub-Saharan Africa – still use unimproved sanitation facilities. There are 46 countries where at least half the population is not using an improved sanitation facility.
• Although declining across all regions, open defecation is practised by 1 billion people, 82% of whom live in 10 countries. Nine out of 10 people defecating in the open live in rural areas.
• Wealthy people universally have higher access to sanitation than the poor. In some countries this gap is narrowing. The gap is increasing, however, in rural areas of countries with low coverage and for marginalized and excluded groups.
• 748 million people – 90% living in sub-Saharan Africa and Asia (43% in Sub-Saharan Africa, and 47% in Asia) – still use unimproved drinking water sources; 82% live in rural areas.