Output and Growth
• The growth rates of agriculture & allied sectors have been fluctuating at 1.5 per cent in 2012-13, 5.6 per cent in 2013-14, (-) 0.2 per cent in 2014-15, 0.7 per cent in 2015-16 and 4.9 per cent in 2016-17.
• The Gross Capital Formation (GCF) in Agriculture and Allied Sectors relative to Gross Value Added (GVA) in this sector has been showing a fluctuating trend from 18.2 per cent in 2011-12 to 16.4 per cent in 2015-16.
• The Gross Capital Formation in agriculture and allied sectors as a proportion to the total GCF showed a decline from 8.3 per cent in 2014-2015 to 7.8 per cent in 2015-16. This decline can be attributed to reduction in private investment.
• As per the Fourth Advance Estimates for 2016-17 released by Department of Agriculture, Cooperation and Farmer’s Welfare, the country achieved a record production of food grains estimated at 275.7 million tonnes, which is higher by 10.6 million tonnes than the previous record production of food grains in 2013-14.
• The production of rice is estimated at 110.2 million tonnes during 2016-17 which is also a new record. Similarly, the production of wheat, estimated at 98.4 million tonnes is higher by 2.6 per cent than the previous record production achieved during 2013-14.
• The production of pulses is estimated at 23.0 million tonnes during 2016-17 and higher by 3.7 million tonnes than the previous record production achieved during 2013-14.
• The production of oilseeds and cotton registered a growth of 27 per cent and 10.3 per cent respectively in 2016-17. This increase in production of food grains and other crops is mainly on account of very good rainfall during monsoon 2016-17 and various policy initiatives taken up by the Government.
• As per the First Advance Estimates released on 22nd September, 2017, kharif food grains production during 2017-18 is estimated at 134.7 million tonnes which is expected to be lower by 3.9 million tonnes from the production of 138.5 million tonnes during 2016-17.
• The total production of rice during 2017-18 is estimated at 94.5 million tonnes vis-à-vis 96.4 million tonnes in 2016-17. The production of pulses during 2017-18 is estimated at 8.7 million tonnes, sugarcane at 337.7 million tonnes, oilseeds at 20.7 million tonnes and cotton at 32.3 million bales of 170 kgs each.
• As per latest information available on sowing of crops from states, 617.8 lakh hectares of area has been covered under rabi crops for 2017-18 as on 19th January 2018. The area coverage under rabi crops is above 98 per cent of the normal area.
• As on 19 January, 2018, area sown under rabi crops (i.e. wheat, rice, pulses, coarse cereals and oilseeds) has declined from 621.0 lakh hectares in 2016-17 to 617.8 lakh hectares in 2017-18.
• Although the share of livestock in Gross Value Added (GVA) in agriculture has risen from 22.0 per cent to 26.0 per cent between 2011-12 and 2015-16, the share of the crop sector in GVA has been on the decline from 65.0 per cent to 60.0 per cent in the same span.
• In 2002-03 the share of livestock in total farm incomes was just 4 per cent which increased to 13 per cent by 2012-13.
• As per Census 2011, out of total female main workers, 55 per cent were agricultural labourers and 24 per cent were cultivators. However, only 12.8 per cent of the operational holdings were owned by women, which reflect the gender disparity in ownership of landholdings in agriculture. Moreover, there is a concentration of operational holdings (25.7 per cent) by women in the marginal and small holdings categories (i.e. below 1 hectare and between 1 hectare and 2 hectare, respectively).
• India ranks first, with 179.8 Mha (9.6 percent of the global net cropland area) of net cropland area according to United states Geological Survey 2017.
• The Index of Crop Diversification has been computed for major states and all India to examine whether there has been major changes in the cropping patterns across states. The index value ranges between 0 and 1 and higher the value, greater the diversification.
• There is a declining inter-temporal behaviour in crop diversification for the states like Chhattisgarh, Haryana, Madhya Pradesh, Odisha, Punjab and Uttar Pradesh. Among these states, the decline in the index has been sharp for Odisha. The index for the state declined from 0.740 in 1994-95 to 0.703 in 2005-06.
• The year 2010-11 saw a steeper decline in the index for the state as it fell to 0.380 and subsequently to 0.340 in 2014-15. Two of the states Himachal Pradesh and Jharkhand have shown increasing values in crop diversification.
• The crop diversification scenario for India as a whole appears to be almost stable throughout the periods.
• In Odisha, by 2014-15, 80 per cent of the cropped area has been under rice, around 10 per cent under other pulses and around 4 percent under other food crops.
• In Punjab too, wheat and paddy cover 83 per cent of the cultivable area of the state. The issues related to mono-culture as witnessed in Odisha and Punjab are declining productivity, lower fertilizer response ratio, degradation of soil health and declining profitability of cultivation.
• Crops Diversification Programme is being implemented by the Government in original green revolution states viz. Punjab, Haryana and in Western UP to diversify paddy area towards less water requiring crops like oilseeds, pulses, coarse cereal, agro-forestry and shifting of tobacco farmers to alternative crops/cropping system in tobacco growing states viz. Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Gujarat, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Odisha, Tamil Nadu, Telangana, Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal.
According to the Economic Survey 2017-18, Volume-2, Statistical Appendix (please click here, here and here to access):
• Headline inflation measured by the Consumer Price Index (CPI) has remained under control for the fourth successive year. Financial year (FY) 2017-18 began with an annual inflation rate of 3.0 per cent. In the first two quarters of FY 2017-18, there was a moderate increase in prices, resulting in a low level of inflation of 2.2 per cent in quarter one and 3.0 per cent in quarter two.
• Headline inflation rate reached its series low of 1.5 per cent in the month of June 2017. Food inflation measured by the Consumer Food Price Index (CFPI) declined to a low of 1.2 per cent during the FY 2017-18 (April-December).
• The average inflation based on the new series (2011-12) of Wholesale Price Index (WPI) stood at 1.7 per cent in 2016-17 compared to (-)3.7 per cent in 2015-16 and 1.2 per cent in 2014-15.
• WPI based inflation for FY 2017-18 (Apr-Dec) stood at 2.9 per cent.
• The average CPI-combined (CPI-C) inflation declined to 4.5 per cent in 2016-17 from 4.9 per cent in 2015-16 and 5.9 per cent in 2014-15. Average inflation for FY 2017-18 (Apr-Dec) stood at 3.3 per cent, below the threshold of 4 per cent.
• The decline in the inflation in the first half of the current fiscal year was indicative of a benign food inflation which ranged between (-)2.1 to 1.5 per cent. The moderate inflation rate of less than 4 per cent was maintained for straight 12 months up to the end of October 2017.
• The CPI-C inflation for the month of December, 2017 stood at 5.2 per cent as compared to 4.9 per cent in November, 2017 and 3.4 per cent in December, 2016.
• CPI Food (CFPI) declined to 4.2 per cent in 2016-17 from 4.9 per cent in 2015-16 and 6.4 per cent in 2014-15. Average food inflation for the financial year 2017-18 (Apr-Dec) declined to a low of 1.2 per cent and stood at 5.0 per cent in December, 2017.
• The rise in food inflation in recent months is mainly due to factors driving prices of vegetables and fruits. Though decline in food inflation is broad-based, major drivers are meat & fish, oil & fats, spices and pulses & products.
• Pulses & products sub-group with a weight of 2.4 in CPI-C has recorded inflation of (-)22.1 per cent in FY 2017-18 (Apr-Dec) as compared to 16.2 per cent during the same period last year. Vegetables accounting for 6.04 weight in overall CPI-C recorded inflation of 2.4 per cent during 2017-18 (Apr-Dec).
• Food inflation based on WPI has also declined, it averaged 2.3 per cent in FY 2017-18 (Apr-Dec) as compared to 6.3 per cent in FY 2016-17 (Apr-Dec). WPI of Food Articles and Food Products has also shown decline in FY 2017-18 (Apr-Dec) over the corresponding period of the previous FY.
• WPI Food inflation stood at 2.9 per cent in December, 2017 as compared to 4.1 per cent in November, 2017 and 3.6 per cent in December, 2016.
• While significant moderation has been witnessed in the headline and food inflation, the CPI based core (CPI excluding food and fuel group) inflation has remained above 4 per cent during the last four financial years. However, it has declined from 4.8 per cent in FY 2016-17 (Apr-Dec) to 4.5 per cent in FY 2017-18 (Apr-Dec) and was 5.2 per cent in December, 2017.
• Refined core (CPI excluding food and fuel group, petrol & diesel) is moving very close to core since the beginning of FY 2017-18, it declined to 4.4 per cent in FY 2017-18 (Apr-Dec) from 5.0 per cent in FY 2016-17 (Apr-Dec).
• Refined core (excluding housing) declined to 4.0 per cent in FY 2017-18 (Apr-Dec) from 4.9 per cent in FY 2016-17 (Apr-Dec) and stood at 4.3 per cent in December 2017.
• At the national level, CPI-C inflation was driven mainly by food during FY 2016-17 (Apr-Dec). The miscellaneous group [miscellaneous group (weight of 28.32 % in CPI - C) includes household goods & services, health, transport & communication, recreation and amusement, education and personal care and effects] has contributed the most to it during the current FY 2017-18 (Apr-Dec).
• Goods inflation (weight of 76.6% in CPI-C) is rising since June 2017 while services (with weight of 23.4%) inflation has remained around 5 per cent.
• Housing group contributed nearly twice as much to inflation in 2017-18 (Apr-Dec) as compared to 2016-17 (Apr- Dec). Excluding housing, services inflation declined to 3.8 per cent in 2017-18 (Apr-Dec) from 5.0 per cent during the corresponding period last financial year. Contribution of fuel and light group in CPI inflation in 2017-18 (Apr-Dec) was thrice of that in 2016-17 (Apr-Dec).
• While food was the main driver of CPI (Rural) inflation in 2016-17 (Apr- Dec), miscellaneous category contributed the most to inflation in rural areas during April-December of the current financial year. The contribution of fuel and light, clothing and footwear and pan, tobacco and intoxicants categories in CPI (Rural) inflation has risen during April to December, 2017 over the same period last year.
• In urban areas, while food was the main driver of inflation during April-December last year, housing sector has contributed the most to CPI (Urban) inflation during April-December in the current financial year, followed by miscellaneous category.
• Many states have witnessed sharp fall in CPI inflation during 2017-18 (Apr-Dec).
• Inflation in seventeen states was below 4 per cent in FY 2017-18 (Apr- Dec) as compared to only three states in 2016-17 (Apr-Dec). Five states, namely, Jammu & Kashmir, Kerala, Delhi, Tamil Nadu and Himachal Pradesh recorded inflation of more than 4 per cent in FY 2017-18 (Apr-Dec) whereas nineteen states had inflation of more than 4 per cent in FY 2016-17 (Apr-Dec).
• Ten states had inflation rate lower than All India average for FY 2017-18 (Apr-Dec) with Odisha having the lowest inflation followed by Uttar Pradesh, Bihar and Chhattisgarh, respectively.
• In urban areas, fifteen states had inflation of less than 4 per cent in FY 2017-18 (Apr-Dec) as compared to twelve in FY 2016-17 (Apr-Dec).
• In the case of CPI-Rural, fifteen states recorded inflation of less than 4 per cent in FY 2017-18 (Apr-Dec) as against only one in 2016-17 (Apr-Dec).
• The level of variability of seasonal factors is more in the case of Food than General price indices. Within Food price indices, variability level of vegetables is several times that of pulses. Coefficient of Variation (CV) of seasonal factors of pulses has increased during the period.
• As per the commodity prices published by the World Bank, energy commodity prices are surging recently. These recorded average inflation of 15.3 per cent in FY 2017-18 (Apr-Dec) compared to (-) 8.0 per cent in FY 2016-17 (Apr-Dec).
• Movement of ‘Fuel & Power’ inflation based on All India WPI tracks World Bank Energy price index and increased at an average of 9.7 per cent in FY 2017-18 (Apr-Dec) compared to (-) 6.5 per cent in FY 2016-17 (Apr-Dec).
• World Bank Food price index declined by 3.0 per cent in 2017-18 (Apr-Dec), but rose at 5.8 per cent during the corresponding period last year. In contrast, FAO food prices have recorded higher inflation of 5.8 per cent in FY 2017-18 (Apr-Dec) compared to 3.2 per cent in FY 2016-17 (Apr-Dec).
• WPI ‘Basic Metals’ prices have also tracked World Bank’s ‘Base Metals’ prices, though, inflation of ‘Basic Metals’ as per WPI is lower at 9.9 per cent than that of World Bank’s ‘Base Metals’ inflation of 23.7 per cent during FY 2017-18 (Apr-Dec).
Poverty and Human Development
• According to the data of the 66th round of the National Sample Survey (2009-10), the average dietary energy intake per person per day was 2147 Kcal for rural India and 2123 Kcal for urban India $*
• The Economic Survey 2015-16 states that the total expenditure on Social Services including Education, Health, Social Security, Nutrition, Welfare of SC/ST/OBC etc. during 2014-15 (RE) was 7 % of GDP while it was 6.5% during 2013-14 $*
• As per the Human Development Report (HDR) 2015, India ranks 130 out of 188 countries. India’s HDI value for 2014 is 0.609. India has improved her ranking by 6 places between 2009 and 2014 $*
• Life expectancy at birth in India was 65.4 years in 2011 as against 81.1 years in Norway, 81.9 years in Australia, 74.9 years in Sri Lanka, 73.5 years in China, and the global average of 69.8 years. However, it has increased by one percentage points from 64.4 in 2010 to 65.4 in 2011 €
• The latest estimates of poverty are available for the year 2011-12. These estimates have been made following the Tendulkar Committee methodology using household consumption expenditure survey data. For 2011-12, the percentage of persons living below the poverty line is estimated as 25.7 percent in rural areas, 13.7 percent in urban areas, and 21.9 percent for the country as a whole $$
• While only 73 per cent literacy has been achieved (Census 2011), there is marked improvement in female literacy $$
• Male literacy at 80.9 per cent is still higher than female literacy at 64.6 per cent but the latter increased by 10.9 percentage points compared to the 5.6 percentage points for the former $$
• As per the India Human Development Report, fertility rates have come down and have reached replacement levels in a number of states; MMR has come down to 212 per 100,000 live births in 2009 from 301 in 2003. IMR, though still high, has fallen to 50 per 1000 in 2009. Institutional deliveries have risen from 39 per cent in 2006 to 78 per cent in 2009 €
σ Economic Survey 2012-13,
%& 11th Five-Year Plan of the Planning Commission,
%$ Poverty of thought, http://www.business-standard.com/india/news/povertythought
$$ Economic Survey 2014-15 (published in February 2015) (Please click Vol1 and Vol2 to access)
According to the Economic Survey 2017-18, Volume-2 (please click here to access):
• The expenditure on social services by the Centre and states as a proportion of GDP has remained in the range of 6 per cent during 2012-13 to 2014-15.
• There has been a marginal decline to 5.8 per cent in 2015-16 which has further moved up to 6.6 per cent in 2017-18 (BE).
• The data of 29 states, sourced from State Finances: A Study of Budgets of 2016-17 (RBI) have shown upward movement in expenditure on social services (as a percentage of GSDP) from 6.0 per cent to 6.9 per cent during 2014-15 to 2016-17 (BE).
• Student Classroom Ratio (SCR) is defined as average number of pupils (students) per classroom in a school in a given school-year. The ideal size should be at 30 students per classroom. At the national level, percentage of schools with SCR greater than 30 students declined from 43 per cent in 2009-10 to 25.7 per cent in 2015-16. Though, SCR improved in almost all of the states, there are variations in the improvement across states.
• At primary level and upper primary level, the Pupil Teacher Ratio (PTR) should be 30:1 and 35:1 respectively. As per Unified District Information System for Education (UDISE), the PTR at national level for primary schools is 23:1 in 2015-16.
• Data from the UNESCO Institute of Statistics on PTR in primary schools shows that India has a national PTR of 31.5 as compared to 26.7 in Bhutan, 23.2 in Sri Lanka, 23.1 in Nepal, 20.9 in Brazil and 16.3 in China during 2015.
• Despite improvement in number of schools complying with PTR norms between 2009-10 and 2015-16, states like Bihar, Jharkhand, Madhya Pradesh, and Uttar Pradesh have higher percentage of schools with PTR >30 compared to other states.
• There is a need to assess whether higher number of schools having PTR>30 in above 4 states is owing to the shortage of teachers or deployment issue of teachers.
• Gender Parity Index (GPI) in education is a valuable indicator which reflects the discrimination against girls in access to educational opportunities. With consistent efforts by the Government through programmes like Beti Padhao, Beti Bachao, the GPI has improved substantially at the primary and secondary levels of enrolment.
• The GPI, which is the ratio of number of girls to the number of boys enrolled, for primary education (I-V) has improved from 1.01 to 1.03, for secondary education (IX-X) has increased from 0.88 to 1.01 and for higher education has risen from 0.86 to 0.92 between 2010-11 and 2014-15.
• As on 31 March, 2017, the number of insured persons covered under Employee’s State Insurance (ESI) scheme is 3.19 crore and total beneficiaries including their family members are 12.40 crore. ESI has a network of 152 hospitals, 1467 dispensaries, 628 branch offices and 62 regional /sub regional offices across the country.
• In India, the gender gap in labour force participation rate is more than 50 percentage points. The lower participation of women in economic activities adversely affects the growth potential of the economy.
• There has been highest ever budget allocation of Rs 48,000 crore under MGNREGA during 2017-18. About 4.6 crore households were provided employment totaling 177.8 crore person days during 2017-18 as on 14th January, 2018.
• Out of this, 54 per cent were generated by women, 22 per cent by Schedule Castes and 17 per cent by Schedule Tribes. Trends from 2013-14 to 2017-18 show that participation by women in the total person days generated has been more than 50 per cent. Further, the scheme has been converged with Integrated Child Development Services Scheme (ICDS scheme) for construction of anganwadi centres (AWCs).
• As per the Maternity Benefit (Amendment) Act, 2017, the women are entitled to enhanced maternity leave for a period of 26 weeks (6 months) working in registered establishment under any Central or state law. It has been made mandatory for the establishments employing 50 or more employees to provide crèche facility, either separately or along with common facilities within a prescribed distance.
• As per the report ‘Women in Politics 2017 (IPU & UN)’ Lok Sabha had 64 (11.8 percent of 542 MPs) and Rajya Sabha had 27 (11 per cent of 245 MPs) women MPs. As on October 2016, out of the total 4118 MLAs across the country, only 9 per cent were women.
• Among the state assemblies, the highest percentage of women MLAs were from Bihar, Haryana and Rajasthan with 14 per cent followed by Madhya Pradesh and West Bengal with 13 per cent and Punjab with 12 per cent (Women & Men in India – 2016, MoSPI).
• In India, between 2010 and 2017 women’s share rose 1 percentage point in its Lower house. There are developing countries like Rwanda which has more than 60 per cent women representatives in Parliament in 2017 while countries like Egypt, India, Brazil, Malaysia, Japan, Sri Lanka and Thailand have less than 15 per cent representation of women in Parliament.
• There has been substantial representation of women at the local government levels but varies from state to state. There are 13.72 lakh elected women representatives (EWRs) in PRIs which constitute 44.2 percent of total elected representatives (ERs) as on December, 2017. Women sarpanchs (chairperson) accounted for 43 percent of total gram panchayats (GPs) across the country, exhibiting active leadership of women in local governments.
• Expenditure by the Government healthcare providers accounted for about 23 percent of the Current Health Expenditure (CHE) as per National Health Accounts 2014-15 that reflects the prominence of private hospitals and clinics among health care providers. The expenditure on pharmacies accounted for 29 percent of CHE by both health care providers (government and private).
• Although, Out of Pocket Expenditure (OoPE) has declined approximately 7 percentage points during the period 2004-05 to 2014-15, its share is still at 62 per cent as per National Health Accounts (NHA) 2014-15.
• The findings of Household Health Expenditure survey in India indicate that about 10 per cent of OoPE on health was spent by households on diagnostics (including medicines and diagnostic test as part of package) during 2013-14.
• The Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS) scheme has been universalized with cumulative approval of 7076 projects and 14 lakh Anganwadi Centres (AWCs) including 20,000 anganwadis on demand. Digitization of Anganwadi Centres (AWCs) has already begun in 8 states with ICTs enabled monitoring of the Schemes through smart phones/Tablets to anganwadi worker and supervisor.
• As per baseline survey conducted by Ministry of Drinking Water & Sanitation (M/o DWS), the number of persons defecating in open in rural areas, which were 55 crore in October, 2014 declined to 25 crore in January, 2018, at a much faster pace compared to the trend observed before 2014.
• So far, 296 districts and 307,349 villages all over the India have been declared as Open Defecation Free (ODF). Eight states and two Union Territories i.e. Sikkim, Himachal Pradesh, Kerala, Haryana, Uttarakhand, Chhattisgarh, Arunachal Pradesh, Gujarat, Daman & Diu and Chandigarh have been declared as ODF completely.
• The surveys conducted by National Sample Survey Office (NSSO,2016) and Quality Council of India (QCI, 2017) on usage of toilets by the individuals who have access to toilets reported more than 90 per cent of individuals using toilets in 2016 and 2017.
• According to UNICEF, the lack of sanitation is responsible for the deaths of over 100,000 children in India annually and for stunting of 48 per cent children.
• In order to assess the impact of sanitation programme on health status, a pilot study was undertaken by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation (BMGF) in selected ODF and non-ODF districts. BMGF estimated that households in ODF villages in India have significantly better health indicators.
• The study was based on CAPI (Computer assisted personal interviewing) technique in a survey of 10 districts viz. Karnataka (Udupi & Chitradurga), West Bengal (Nadia & Birbhum), Rajasthan (Churu & Alwar), Madhya Pradesh (Harda & Dewas) and Uttar Pradesh (Shamli & Saharanpur) covering 4000 households (2000 ODF and 2000 non-ODF households) during May 2017 to June 2017.
• The non-ODF districts have lower percentage of population with secondary education, reflect higher levels of diarrhea, stunting, wasting and BMI owing to behavioural inertia. However, in ODF areas, with higher percentage of population with secondary education, there has been a clear cut evidence of behavioral shift of the individuals due to larger presence and proactive work undertaken by village health and sanitation committees (VHSC). Moreover, a higher proportion of mothers of ODF areas in the ‘normal’ BMI category (62.9 per cent) as compared to that of non-ODF areas (57.50 per cent) shows that not only children but mothers were also healthier in the ODF areas.
• Studies have documented that in addition to the health benefits, there are also economic gains on becoming ODF areas. According to the World Bank estimates, the lack of sanitation facilities costs India over 6 per cent of GDP. In a report ‘The Financial and Economic Impact of SBM in India (2017)’ UNICEF estimated that a household in an ODF village in rural India saves Rs. 50,000/- ($800) every year.
According to the Economic Survey 2017-18, Volume-2 (please click here to access):
• A sum of Rs.20,339 crore has been approved by the Government of India in 2017-18 to meet various obligations arising from interest subvention being provided to the farmers on short term crop loans, as also loans on post-harvest storages meets an important input requirement of the farmers in the country especially small and marginal farmers who are the major borrowers.
• In order to address the risk associated with Climate variability and climate change, climate resilient technologies are being demonstrated in 153 model villages under KVK covering 23 states under “National Innovations on Climate Resilient Agriculture” (NICRA). In addition, 623 contingency plans have been prepared so far and hosted on ICAR /DAC websites (http://farmer.gov.in/ , http:// agricoop.nic.in /acp.html, http://crida.in/) and circulated to all state agriculture departments to manage various weather aberrations such as droughts, floods, cyclones, hailstorms, heat and cold waves.
• The coverage of Small and Marginal Farmers (SMF) in Agriculture Ground level credit (GLC) was 62.7 per cent in 2013-14, 57.0 per cent in 2014-15 and 60.1 per cent in 2015-16.
• The Central Government will provide interest subvention of 5 per cent per annum to all prompt payee farmers for short term crop loan upto one year for loan upto Rs. 3 lakhs borrowed by them during the year 2017-18. Farmers will thus have to effectively pay only 4 per cent as interest. In case farmers do not repay the short term crop loan in time they would be eligible for interest subvention of 2 per cent as against 5 per cent available above.
• The Central Government will provide approximately Rs. 20,339 crore as interest subvention for 2017-18.
• In order to give relief to small and marginal farmers who would have to borrow at 9 per cent for the post-harvest storage of their produce, the Central Government has approved an interest subvention of 2 per cent i.e. an effective interest rate of 7 per cent for loans upto 6 months.
• To provide relief to the farmers affected by natural calamities, the interest subvention of 2 per cent will be provided to Banks for the first year on the restructured amount.
• In case farmers do not repay the short term crop loan in time they would be eligible for interest subvention of 2 per cent as against available above.
• Agricultural R&D is the main source of innovation, which is needed to sustain agricultural productivity growth in the long-term (FAO, 2012). The actual expenditure of DARE/ICAR has increased from Rs. 5,184 crore in 2010-11 to Rs. 6,992 (BE) crore during 2017-18. The compound annual growth rate of expenditure has been 4.2 percent over the years and in recent years’ expenditure has been on higher side.
• During the current year (2017-18), investment in Agriculture Research and Education protected new agricultural innovations by filling 45 patent applications at Indian Patent Office (IPO) and the cumulative patent applications has now risen to 1,025.
• 10 copyright and 12 trademark applications were filed by ICAR for products and processes. After the Protection of Plant Varieties and Farmers’ Rights Authority notified new genera, applications for 135 varieties were filed at the Registry and 155 high-yielding varieties/ hybrids of cereals were released for cultivation in different agro-ecologies of the country during 2016.
• A total 209 new varieties/hybrids tolerant to various biotic and abiotic stresses with enhanced quality have been developed for Cereals, Pulses, Oilseeds, Commercial and Forage crops.
• 117 high yielding varieties/hybrids of cereals comprising 65 of rice, 14 of wheat, 24 of maize, 5 of finger millet, 3 of pearl millet, 1 each of sorghum, barley, foxtail millet, kodo millet, little millet and proso millet were released for cultivation in different agro-ecologies of the country during 2017.
• 28 high yielding oilseeds varieties comprising 8 of rapeseed-mustard, 5 of soybean, 4 each of groundnut and linseed, 3 of sunflower, 2 each of castor and niger were released for different agro-ecological regions.
• 32 high-yielding varieties of pulses comprising 10 of chickpea, 6 of lentil, 4 of cowpea, 3 of mungbean, 2 each of pigeonpea, horse gram and field pea, 1 each of urdbean, rajmash and faba bean were released for different agro-ecological region.
• 24 high-yielding varieties of commercial crops including 13 of cotton, 8 of sugarcane and 3 of jute were released for different agro-ecologicalregions.
• 8 high yielding varieties/hybrids of forage crops comprising 3 of oats, 1 each of bajra, napier hybrid, forage sorghum, grain amaranthus, forage cowpea and marvel grass were released for cultivation in different agro-ecologies.
* The total livestock population consisting of Cattle, Buffalo, Sheep, Goat, pig, Horses & Ponies, Mules, Donkeys, Camels, Mithun and Yak in the country is 512.05 million numbers in 2012. The total livestock population has decreased by about 3.33% over the previous census.
* Livestock population has increased substantially in Gujarat (15.36%), Uttar Pradesh (14.01%), Assam (10.77%), Punjab (9.57%), Bihar (8.56%), Sikkim (7.96%), Meghalaya (7.41%), and Chhattisgarh (4.34%).
* The number of milch animals (in-milk and dry), cows and buffaloes, has increased from 111.09 million to 118.59 million, an increase of 6.75%.
* The number of animals in milk, cows and buffaloes, has increased from 77.04 million to 80.52 million showing a growth of 4.51%.
* The Female Cattle (Cows) Population has increased by 6.52% over the previous census (2007) and the total number of female cattle in 2012 is 122.9 million numbers.
* The Female Buffalo population has increased by 7.99% over the previous census and the total number of female buffalo is 92.5 million numbers in 2012.
* The exotic/crossbred milch cattle increased from 14.4 million to 19.42 million, an increase of 34.78%.
* Indigenous milch cattle increased from 48.04 million to 48.12 million, an increase of 0.17%.
* The milch buffaloes increased from 48.64 million to 51.05 million with an increase of 4.95% over previous census.
* The total sheep in the country is 65.06 million numbers in 2012, declined by about 9.07% over census 2007.
* The goat population has declined by 3.82% over the previous census and the total Goat in the country is 135.17 million numbers in 2012.
* The total pigs in the country have decreased by 7.54% over the previous census and the total pigs in the country are 10.29 million numbers in 2012.
* Horses & Ponies population has increased by 2.08% over the previous census and the total Horses & Ponies in the country is 0.62 million numbers in 2012.
* The total Mules in the country have increased by 43.34% over the previous census and the total Mules in the country are 0.19 million numbers in 2012.
* Camel population has decreased by 22.48% over the previous census and the total Camels in the country is 0.4 million numbers in 2012.
* The total donkey population in the country have decreased by 27.22% over the previous census and the total donkeys in the country are 0.32 million numbers in 2012.
* The total poultry population in the country has increased by 12.39% over the previous census and the total poultry in the country is 729.2 million numbers in 2012.
* The total Mithun and Yak in the country has registered a growth rates of 12.98% and -7.64% respectively over the previous census and the Mithuns and Yaks in the country is 0.29 million and 0.07 million in numbers respectively.
Source: 19th Livestock Census (Please click here to download)/ Press Information Bureau, 3 September, 2014
Interesting facts about Indian agriculture #
* The category ‘cultivator households’ includes also those households who were reported to have some area under orchards or plantations but none devoted to cultivation of seasonal crops. As distinct from a cultivator household, a field-crop cultivator (FCC) household is defined as one which reported cultivation of at least one field crop during the agricultural year.
# [inside]Cultivation Practices in India[/inside], Report No. 451(54/31/3), NSS 54th Round, January 1998 – June 1998, published in August 1999
• Cost of cultivation data shows that labour accounts for more than 40 percent of the total variable cost of production in most cases. The average daily wages for agricultural field labour for ploughing and harvesting at all India level have increased at the rate of 8.7 per cent and 9.2 per cent per annum during 2001-02 to 2010-11 respectively as against the average wages paid for industries covered under Annual Survey of Industries (ASI) at 6.3 per cent per annum*
• A little more than half of total land mass of 328.73 million hectare in the country is used for agriculture. This includes 140.02 million ha net sown area under cultivation and 26.17 million ha for non-agricultural uses. Over the years there is a gradual increase in area under non-agricultural uses. During the last decade (1999-2000 to 2009-10), area under non-agricultural uses has increased by 2.57 million ha (11%). During the same period cultivable land has marginally declined by 1.4 million ha (0.8%) and net sown area has declined by 1.04 million ha (0.7%)*
• As per Agriculture Census 2010-11, small and marginal holdings of less than 2 hectare account for 85 percent of the total operational holdings and 44 percent of the total operated area. The average size of holdings for all operational classes (small & marginal, medium and large) have declined over the years and for all classes put together it has come down to 1.16 hectare in 2010-11 from 2.82 hectare in 1970-71*
• As per estimates of Indian Council of Agricultural Research (2010), out of total geographical area of 328.73 mha, about 120.40 mha is affected by various kind of land degradation resulting in annual soil loss of about 5.3 billion tonnes through erosion. This includes water and wind erosion (94.87 mha), water logging (0.91 mha), soil alkalinity/ sodicity (3.71 mha), soil acidity (17.93 mha), soil salinity (2.73 mha) and mining and industrial waste (0.26 mha). Besides, water and wind erosions are wide spread across the country. As much as 5.3 billion tonnes of soil gets eroded every year. Of the soil so eroded, 29% is permanently lost to sea, 10% is deposited in reservoirs reducing their storage capacity and rest 61% gets shifted from one place to another*
• Per capita availability of land has declined from 0.89 hectare in 1951 to 0.32 hectare in 2001 and is projected to further slide down to 0.20 hectare in 2035. As far as agricultural land is concerned, per capita availability of land has declined from 0.5 hectare in 1951 to 0.18 hectare in 2001 and is likely to decline further. The average land holding size which was about 1.33 ha in 2000-01 has declined to 1.16 ha during 2010-11*
• During the period 1950-51 to 2009-10, the percentage of land used for non agricultural purposes over reporting area has increased from 3.3 to 8.6%. During the last decade (1999-2000 to 2009-10), area under non-agricultural uses has increased by 2.57 million ha i.e. by 11%*
• States where proportion of land under non agricultural uses is higher than all India average (%) are West Bengal, Tamil Nadu, Bihar including Jharkhand, Sikkim, Assam, Tripura, Goa, Andhra Pradesh, Kerala, UP, Haryana and UTs like Chandigarh, Delhi, Pudduchery and Daman & Diu*
• About 52% of the total workforce is still employed by the farm sector which makes more than half of the Indian population dependant on agriculture for sustenance (NSS 66th Round)**
• Cropping intensity has gone up from 118 per cent in 1970-71 to 138 percent in 2008-09. Cropping intensity refers to raising of a number of crops from the same field during one agriculture year. It can be expressed as Cropping intensity = (Gross cropped area / Net sown area) x 100**
• During the last forty years (1970-71 to 2008-09) the net sown area has remained, by and large, constant at 141 million ha**
• It is reported that about 120 million ha land is degraded in India, and about 5334 million tonnes of soil is lost annually through soil erosion. Out of 120 million ha degraded area, water erosion accounts for 68 percent, chemical degradation 21 percent, wind erosion 10 percent and the rest physical degradation**
• It is estimated that by 2050, about 22 percent of the geographic area and 17 percent of the population will be under absolute water scarcity. The per capita availability of water which was about 1704 cubic metres in 2010 is projected to be 1235 cm in 2050**
• About 12 million ha area is waterlogged and floods prone in India, wherein the productivity of arable crops is severely affected**
* State of Indian Agriculture 2012-13,
of Indian Agriculture 2012-13.pdf
** State of Indian Agriculture 2011-12,
• In India, 73 million people in rural areas have migrated from 1991–2001; of which 53 million have moved to other villages and 20 million to urban areas – a majority of them in search of work&&
• It is estimated that 98 million people moved within the country between 1991 & 2001&&
• On the basis of net migrants by last residence during the past decade (1991-2001), i.e., the difference between in–migration and out–migration, in each state, Maharastra stands at the top of the list with 2.3 million net migrants, followed by Delhi (1.7 million), Gujarat (0.68 million) and Haryana (0.67 million)+
• Uttar Pradesh (-2.6 million) and Bihar (-1.7 million) were the two states with largest number of net migrants migrating out of the state+
&&Managing the Exodus: Grounding Migration in India, American India Foundation, http://www.aifoundation.org/documents/Report-ManagingtheEx
# Report No. 498(59/33/1), Situation Assessment Survey of Farmers: Indebtedness of Farmer Households, National Sample Survey 59th Round (January-December 2003)
***** Food and Agriculture Organisation
*+Census India 2001, www.censusindia.gov.in
• Under-5 mortality rank 49
• % of infants with low birthweight, 2000–2007* 28
• % of population using improved drinking-water sources, 2006, total 89
• Estimated adult HIV prevalence rate (aged 15–49), 2007 0.3
• Youth (15–24 years) literacy rate, 2000–2007*, male 87
• Population annual growth rate (%), 1970–1990 2.2
• GNI per capita (US$), 2007 950
• Life expectancy: females as a % of males, 2007 105
• Child labour ; (5–14 years) 1999–2007*, total 12
• Under-5 mortality rank 49