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Please click here to access the Oxfam India Discussion Paper titled Human Cost of Sugar: Living and Workiing Conditions of Migrant Cane-cutters in Maharashtra (released in February 2020).

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The India Migration Now’s Interstate Migrants Policy Index (IMPEX) 2019 is an index to rank and compare all the states/ UTs of India with respect to state policies on integration of interstate migrants. It uses a basket of indicators to evaluate state-level policies needed to facilitate the integration of interstate migrants. The index examines policies of states through the lens of migrant welfare.

The IMPEX has been adapted from the Migrant Integration Policy Index (MIPEX) that was created by CIDOB-Barcelona Centre for International Affairs and MPG-Migration Policy Group, and is a variant of the same.

The IMPEX is based on 8 policy areas: ‘Labour Market’, ‘Education’, ‘Children’ Rights’, ‘Social Benefits’, ‘Political Participation’, ‘Housing’, ‘Identity and Registration’, and ‘Health and Sanitation’. Each policy area is further broken down into policy dimensions, which are further broken down into policy indicators (total 63 policy indicators).

The average score of all indicators per dimension gives a dimension score. The average score of all dimensions yields a policy area score and finally, the average score of all the policy areas gives the final state level score.

Documents like State Legislations and Rules, Government Orders, Schemes/ Drives, Government Policy Documents, Reputed Secondary Sources and Directly Querying relevant Government Departments were used to evaluate the states’ policies towards interstate migrants.

The key findings of the India Migration Now’s Interstate Migrants Policy Index (IMPEX) 2019 (released in 2019), are as follows (please click here, here, here, here and here to access):

• India Migration Now’s Interstate Migrants Policy Index (IMPEX) 2019 score is 37 on a scale of 0-100 for India.

• Among states/ UTs, Kerala has the highest overall IMPEX score of 63, which is much higher than the national average. Kerala also ranks highest in 4 out of eight policy areas, namely ‘Education’ (85), ‘Children’s Rights’ (75), ‘Health and Sanitation’ (83), and ‘Social Benefits’ (54).

• Goa and Rajasthan both follow Kerala on the index with a score of 51 each (far lesser than Kerala, i.e. by 12 points).

• Manipur fares the worst in the index with a score of 19. The state scored the lowest in the policy areas ‘Social Benefits’ (zero), ‘Health and Sanitation’ (4) and ‘Identity and Registration’ (9).

• States/ UTs like Maharashtra (44), Delhi (34) and Uttar Pradesh, Gujarat and Haryana (35 each), which have the highest interstate migration as per the migration data from Census 2011 (in the same order), did not fare well in terms of IMPEX 2019. Four of these states have a score lower than the national average (37). Policies of these states affect the welfare of most interstate migrants in India since they receive a large number of migrants every year.

• Among the eight policy areas, India has scored poorly relative to other policy areas in case of ‘Children’s Rights’ (average score of 25), ‘Social Benefits’ (average score of 25) and ‘Housing’ (average score of 27), whereas it performed relatively better in case of ‘Identity and Registration’ (average score of 65) and ‘Labour Market’ (average score of 55).

 

Identity and Registration

• As compared to other policy areas, India has fared best in the policy area ‘Identity and Registration’ with a score of 65.
 
• The ‘Identification and Registration’ policy area includes conditions for acquisition of status, security of status rights, and state residency status rights.
    
• The 3 worst performers in the ‘Identification and Registration’ policy area are Manipur (9), Odisha (35) and Bihar (43), whereas the 3 best performers are Punjab (89), Uttar Pradesh (83) and Gujarat (81).

 

Labour Market

• In the policy area ‘Labour Market’, the country has an average score of 55.

• The policy area ‘Labour Market’ reflects the states’ policies on access to the labour market, facilitation of access and workers’ rights.

• Uttarakhand (28) and Karnataka, Nagaland, Chhattisgarh and Manipur (33 each) are the 5 worst performing states in the policy area ‘Labour Market’. States/ UTs that have performed relatively better than the rest in the policy area 'Labour Market' are Sikkim (78) and Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Mizoram and Rajasthan (72 each).

 

Social Benefits 

• According to a paper written by India Migration Now and Migration Policy Group, social benefits are not accessible to persons who are mobile and are not staying at the place of their origin/ actual residence. The policy area ‘Social Benefits’ includes eligibility, facilitation of access and measures to achieve change.

• The states/ UTs that have performed better than the rest in the policy area ‘Social Benefits’ are Kerala (54), Madhya Pradesh (53) and Maharashtra (50). The states/ UTs that have performed poorer than the rest in the policy area ‘Social Benefits’ are Uttar Pradesh, Meghalaya and Manipur (zero each).

 

Children’s Rights

• Children are a vulnerable group during interstate migration as their access to social security and education is affected because of migrating from one place/ state to another place/ state. The policy area ‘Children’s Rights’ include facilitation of rights and policies, measures to achieve change and schemes/ policies.

• The states/ UTs that have performed worse than the rest in the policy area ‘Children’s Rights’ are Tripura (6), Jharkhand (6), Karnataka (8) and Chhattisgarh (8). The states/ UTs that have performed better than the rest in the policy area ‘Children’s Rights’ are Kerala (75), Goa (50) and Rajasthan (44).  

 

Political Participation

• The policy area ‘Political Participation’ includes electoral rights, consultative bodies and implementation policies.

• The state that has performed better than the rest in the policy area ‘Political Participation’ is Rajasthan (50). The state that has performed poorer than the rest in the policy area ‘Political Participation’ is Mizoram (zero).

 

Education
 
• The policy area of ‘Education’ assesses the states’ policies on access to education, facilitation of access and measures to achieve change.

• India’s average score in the policy area ‘Education’ is 33.

• The states/ UTs that have performed better than the rest in the policy area ‘Education’ are Kerala (85), Andhra Pradesh (69) and Odisha (48). The states/ UTs that have performed poorer than the rest in the policy area ‘Education’ are Tripura (7), Delhi (8) and West Bengal (15).

 

Health and Sanitation

• The policy area of ‘Health and Sanitation’ assesses the states’ policies on entitlement to health and sanitation services, facilitation of access and measures to achieve change.

• The states/ UTs that have performed better than the rest in the policy area ‘Health and Sanitation’ are Kerala (83), Andhra Pradesh (79) and Tamil Nadu (71). The states/ UTs that have performed poorer than the rest in the policy area ‘Health and Sanitation’ are Manipur (4), Jharkhand (8) and Uttarakhand and Gujarat (17 each).

 

Housing

• The policy area ‘Housing’ covers access to housing, facilitation of access and measures to achieve change.

• India has an average score of 27 in the policy area ‘Housing’.

• The states/ UTs that have performed better than the rest in the policy area ‘Housing’ are Bihar (64) and Assam and Rajasthan (58 each). The state that has performed the worst in the policy area ‘Housing’ is Chhattisgarh (zero).

 

[Meghana Myadam, who is doing her MA in Development Studies (1st year) from Tata Institute of Social Sciences, Hyderabad, assisted the Inclusive Media for Change team in preparing the summary of the report by India Migration Now. She did this work as part of her summer internship at the Inclusive Media for Change project in July 2020.]



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