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• At the national level, the proportion of government schools having facilities like drinking water was 96.39 percent, boys' toilet was 94.64 percent, girls' toilet was 97.03 percent, boundary wall was 60.12 percent, playground was 56.98 percent, ramp was 71.50 percent, CWSN toilet was 19.59 percent, electricity was 56.45 percent and library was 79.36 percent, according to the Unified District Information System For Education (UDISE) 2017-18 (Provisional) *12
• ASER 2019 ‘Early Years’ data shows a clear relationship between children’s performance on cognitive tasks and measures of early language and early numeracy, suggesting that a focus on activities that strengthen cognitive skills rather than subject learning in the early years may generate substantial benefits in terms of children’s future learning. The entire age band from 4 to 8 needs to be seen as a continuum, and curriculum progression across grades and schooling stages designed accordingly. For an effective and implementable curriculum, the process of designing, planning, piloting, and finalizing needs to keep ground realities in mind *11

• From the National Sample Survey (NSS) 75th Round one gets that in rural areas, average expenditure per student pursuing general course in the current academic year was Rs. 5,240, while in urban areas it was Rs. 16,308. In rural areas, average expenditure per student pursuing technical/professional course in the current academic year was Rs. 32,137, while in urban areas it was Rs. 64,763 *10
• The Right to Education Act was implemented in 2010 and the first cohort of students to benefit from its provisions completed 8 years of compulsory schooling in 2018. Nationally, substantial improvements are visible over this 8-year period in the availability of many school facilities mandated by RTE. The fraction of schools with usable girls' toilets doubled, reaching 66.4 percent in 2018, says the ASER 2018. The proportion of schools with boundary walls increased by 13.4 percentage points, standing at 64.4 percent in 2018. The percentage of schools with a kitchen shed increased from 82.1 percent to 91 percent, and the proportion of schools with books other than textbooks available increased from 62.6 percent to 74.2 percent over the same period *9
• Girls and young women have far lower access to computer and internet as compared to boys. While 49 percent of males have never used the internet, close to 76 percent of females have never done so *8
• Nationally, the proportion of children in Std III who are able to read at least Std I level text has gone up slightly, from 40.2 percent in 2014 to 42.5 percent in 2016, as per the 11th ASER *7
• Nearly 6 percent of rural households and 29 percent of urban household possessed computer. In India, among households with at least one member of age 14 years and above, nearly 27 percent had internet access in the survey year, 2014. The proportions were 16 percent among rural households and 49 percent of urban households *6

• In India nearly 85 percent of the students in age-group 15-29 years were pursuing general education. Nearly 12.6 percent and 2.4 percent students in age-group 15-29 years were attending technical/ professional and vocational courses respectively *6
• As per 2014 ASER report, 2014 is the sixth year in a row that enrollment levels are 96% or higher for the 6-14 age group. The proportion of children currently not in school remains at 3.3 percent. Although enrollment levels are very high for the age group covered by the Right to Education Act (i.e. 6 to 14 years), the proportion of 15 to 16 year olds not enrolled in school is substantial. Nationally, for rural areas, 15.9 percent of boys and 17.3 percent of girls in this age group are currently out of school. In some states the proportion of girls (age group 11-14) out of school remains greater than 8 percent such as Rajasthan (12.1 percent) and Uttar Pradesh (9.2 percent) *5

• Overall, the situation with basic reading continues to be extremely disheartening in India. In 2014, in Std III, only a fourth of all children can read a Std II text fluently. This number rises to just under half in Std V. Even in Std VIII, close to 75 percent children can read Std II level text (which implies that 25 percent still cannot) *5

• Looking over a five to eight year period, the ASER 2014 concludes that math levels have declined in almost every state. Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh are the exceptions where the situation has been more or less the same for the past several years *5
In India, the richest young women have already achieved universal literacy but based on current trends, the poorest are projected to only do so around 2080. Children who learn less are more likely to leave school early. In India, children who achieved lower scores in mathematics at age 12 were more than twice as likely to drop out by age 15 than those who performed better *4

• Of all schools visited in 2013, percentage of schools which have drinking water available and useable is 73.8 percent, toilets available and useable is 62.6 percent, girls' toilet available and useable is 53.3 percent, library available and books being used is 40.7 percent, kitchen shed in school available is 87.0 percent, and mid day meal served on day of visit is 87.2 percent. The proportion of schools that comply with RTE pupil-teacher ratio (PTR) norms has increased every year, from 38.9 percent in 2010 to 45.3 percent in 2013 *3

• The proportion of children (age group 6-14) enrolled in private schools was 29 percent in 2013. Private school enrolment figures were 28.3 percent in 2012. This number has risen from 18.7 percent in 2006 *3

• In 2010, 33.2 percent children of Std. III in government schools could at least do subtraction, as compared to 47.8 percent in private schools. The gap between children in government and private schools has widened over time. In 2013, 18.9 percent of Std. III students in government schools were able to do basic subtraction or more, as compared to 44.6 percent of Std. III children in private schools *3

• In the rural areas, the proportion of not-literates was the highest among persons belonging to the household type rural labour (46 percent) and was the lowest among the household type others (26 percent) *2

• In rural areas, 70 per cent of the students were attending some Government institutions compared to 40 per cent in the urban areas *2

• Gross enrolment ratio (GER) is the total enrolment in a specific level of education, regardless of age, expressed as a percentage of the eligible official school-age population corresponding to the same level of education in a given school year) for primary schools has improved from 104 percent in 2005-06 to 115 percent in 2009-10 *1

• The percentage of trained teachers stood at 89 percent for Higher Secondary Schools/ Inter Colleges, 90 percent for High /Post Basic Schools, 88 percent for Middle/ Sr. Basic School and 86 percent for Pre-Primary/ Primary/ Jr. Basic School, as per Statistics of School Education 2009-10 *1
12. Parliamentary Standing Committee report on Demands for Grants 2020-21, Demand No. 58 of the Department of School Education & Literacy, presented to the Rajya Sabha on 5th March, 2020, Report no. 312, please click here to access
11. ASER 2019 'Early Years', released in January 2020, please click here, here and here to access
10. NSS 75th Round Report: Key Indicators of Household Social Consumption on Education in India, July 2017 to June 2018, released on 23rd November 2019, please click here and click here  
9. Annual Status of Education Report (ASER) 2018, please click here, here and here to access
8. ASER 2017: Beyond Basics, please click here and here to access
7. 11th Annual Status of Education Report (i.e. 2016 ASER), please click here to access
6. 71st round NSS report: Key Indicators of Social Consumption in India Education (published in June 2015), please click here to access the full report; please click here to read the summary of findings
5. ASER 2014 (Please click link1, link2 & link3 to access)

4. 11th UNESCO Education for All Global Monitoring Report 2013-14 entitled Teaching and learning: Achieving quality for all (please click link 1, link 2 and link 3 to download)

3. ASER 2013 report (click link 1, link 2 to download)
2. NSS report no. 551 (66/10/6) titled Status of Education and Vocational Training in India (66th Round), July 2009-June 2010, published in March 2013, MoSPI,

1. Children in India 2012-A Statistical Appraisal, Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation, GoI,


Please note that information about Right to Education and many more related themes is also given under "Empowerment" section of the im4change website. For best results please check out both sections. Please click here to access. 


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