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According to Education in India: 2007-08, Participation and Expenditure
NSS 64th Round, (July 2007–June 2008), Report No. 532(64/25.2/1):

• A survey on ‘Participation and Expenditure in Education’ was conducted in NSS 64th round (July 2007 - June 2008). A sample of 445960 persons, from 63318 rural households and 37263 urban households spread over the country, was surveyed.

• The states with relatively high literacy are- Kerala (94%), Assam (84%), Maharashtra (81%)

• The states with relatively low literacy are- Bihar (58%), Rajasthan (62%), Andhra Pradesh (64%)

• Other low-literacy states included Rajasthan (61.7%), Andhra Pradesh (63.5%), Jharkhand (64.6%), Uttar Pradesh (66.2%), J&K (67.7%) and Orissa (68.3%)

• 66% of the country’s adult population (population of age 15 & above) was found to be literate.

• In rural India, 51.2% of the population in the lowest decile class of monthly per capita expenditure (MPCE) were not literate. Even in the highest decile class, 22.8% persons were not literate.

• The literacy rate (i.e. percentage of literates) for all ages among rural female (RF), rural male (RM), urban female (UF) and urban male (UM) populations was found to be 51.1%, 68.4%, 71.6% and 82.2% respectively. The corresponding rates two decades ago as estimated in NSS 42nd round (1986-87) were 24.8%, 47.6%, 59.1% and 74.0% respectively.

• 98% of rural households & 99% of urban households have school with primary classes within 2 km

• 79% of rural households & 97% of urban households have school with middle classes within 2 km

• 47% of rural households & 91% of urban households have school with secondary classes within 2 km

• Among persons in age-group 5-29: 46% were not currently enrolled in any educational institution; 2% were currently enrolled but not attending; 52% were currently attending educational institutions

• Among persons aged 5-29 attending education of level primary & above - 49% were in Primary level; 24% were in Middle level; 20% in Secondary/HS level; 7% in above-HS level

• For major course attended: type of education was General in 97.8%, Technical in 1.9%, Vocational in 0.3% cases.

• Net Attendance Ratio (NAR) for Classes I-VIII (All-India): 86%

• Major states with relatively high NAR (I-VIII): Himachal Pr. (96%), Kerala (94%), Tamil Nadu (92%)

• Major states with relatively low NAR (I-VIII): Bihar (74%), Jharkhand (81%), Uttar Pradesh (83%)

• At Primary level – 73% of students in private unaided institutions attended recognized institutions

• At Middle level – 78% of students in private unaided institutions attended recognized institutions

• At Primary level: 71% students got free education (Rural- 80%, Urban- 40%)

• At Middle level: 68% students got free education (Rural- 75%, Urban- 45%)

• At Secondary/ HS level: 48% students got free education (Rural- 54%, Urban- 35%)

• Average annual private expenditure per student at Primary level - Rs. 1413 (Rural- Rs. 826, Urban- Rs.3626)

• Average annual private expenditure per student at Middle level - Rs. 2088 (Rural- Rs.1370, Urban- Rs.4264)

• Average annual private expenditure per student at Secondary/ HS level- Rs. 4351 (Rural- Rs.3019, Urban- Rs.7212)

• Average annual private expenditure per student at Above HS level- Rs. 7360 (Rural- Rs.6327, Urban- Rs.8466)

• Average annual private expenditure per student for Technical Education: Rs.32112 (Rural- Rs.27177, Urban- Rs.34822)

• Average annual private expenditure per student for Vocational Education: Rs.14881 (Rural- Rs.13699, Urban- Rs.17016)

• Average annual private expenditure on education at primary level varied from around Rs. 600-800 in states like Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand and Orissa to more than Rs. 3500 in states like Punjab and Haryana.

• For primary education, students in the poorest category in the rural sector incurred an average expenditure of Rs. 352, compared to Rs.3516 for the richest class. In the urban sector the disparity in average educational expenditure was greater still, from Rs. 1035 in the lowest decile class to Rs.13474 in the highest decile class of MPCE.

• For the country as a whole average expenditure on tuition fees (Rs. 1034), examination fee, other fees and payments (Rs. 459) together contributed about half of total expenditure (Rs. 3058) on education. Books and stationery (Rs. 586) was reported to be the next major component of expenditure followed by private coaching (Rs. 354).

• In rural India, tuition fee, together with examination fee and other fees and payments, contributed 40% of total expenditure while another 25% was spent on books and stationery. In the urban sector tuition fee alone contributed 40% of total expenditure.

• In rural areas, the majority of students were attending government schools – 76% of primary level students, 73% of middle level students, and 62% of secondary and HS level students. 

• In urban areas, on the other hand, 59% of students at primary level were in private schools. At middle and secondary/ HS level, 54-55% was in private schools. Government schools accounted for only 35% of primary level students, 40% of middle level students, and 43% of secondary/ HS level students.

• While in states like Assam, Bihar, Chhattisgarh and Orissa, more than 90% of students at primary level attended schools run by government or local bodies, the corresponding proportion was only 35% in Kerala and 45% in Punjab. In these two states, the majority of students, even at primary level, were in private schools – aided or unaided.

• About 60% of students in government and local-body-run institutions got mid-day meals compared to 16% in aided private institutions and 2% in unaided private only.

• Differentials across institution types were equally marked in case of free/ subsidised books, with 69% of students in government-run schools receiving such books compared to 22% in aided private and only 4% in unaided private institutions.

• Major reasons for Discontinuance/ drop-out: Financial constraints (21%), Child not interested in studies (20%), Unable to cope up or failure in studies (10%), Completed desired level or class (10%), Parents not interested in studies (9%)

• The three most frequently given reasons for non-enrolment were a) parents not interested in education of their children (33.2%), b) financial constraints (21%) and c) education not considered necessary (21.8%).


Note: Net Attendance Ratio (I-VIII)=(Number of persons in age-group 6-13 currently attending Classes I-VIII divided by Estimated population in the age-group I-VIII years) multiplied by hundred 



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