According to the Human Development Report 2021-22: Uncertain times, unsettled lives -- Shaping our future in a transforming world (released in September 2022), which has been produced by United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) (please click here, here, here, here and here to access):
• The 2021-22 Human Development Report presents the 2021 HDI (values and ranks) for 191 countries and UN-recognized territories, along with the Inequality-adjusted Human Development Index (IHDI) for 156 countries, the Gender Development Index (GDI) for 172 countries, the Gender Inequality Index (GII) for 170 countries, and the Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI) for 109 countries.
• In 2021, India's Human Development Index (HDI) ranking was 132nd (HDI value 0.633) among 191 countries and UN recognized territories, while China's ranking was 79th (HDI value 0.768), Sri Lanka's 73rd (HDI value 0.782), Bhutan's 127th (HDI value 0.666), Bangladesh's 129th (HDI value 0.661) and Pakistan's 161st (HDI value 0.544).
• India’s HDI value for 2021 is 0.633 -- which put the country in the medium human development category—positioning it at 132 out of 191 countries and territories.
• India's HDI rank for 2020 was 130 out of 191 countries and UN recognized territories (calculated using the most recently revised historical data available in 2022), which fell by two places to 132 out of 191 countries and UN recognized territories for the 2021 HDI. Based on consistent indicators, methodology and time-series data, in the case of India, HDI value for 2019 was 0.645, for 2020 was 0.642 and for 2021 it was 0.633.
• According to the Human Development Report 2020: The next frontier -- Human development and the Anthropocene (released in December 2020), India's Human Development Index (HDI) ranking was 131st (HDI value 0.645) among 189 countries and UN recognized territories for 2019.
• Because national and international agencies continually improve their data series, the data — including the HDI values and ranks — presented in the HDR 2021-22 are not comparable to those published in earlier editions.
• Table 2, Human Development Index trends, 1990–2021, provides a time series of HDI values allowing 2021 HDI values to be compared with those for previous years. The table uses the most recently revised historical data available in 2022 and the same methodology applied to compute 2021 HDI values. The table also includes the change in HDI rank over the last six years and the average annual HDI growth rate across four time intervals: 1990–2000, 2000–2010, 2010–2021 and 1990–2021.
• Between 1990 and 2021, the average annual HDI growth (based on consistent indicators, methodology and time-series data) for India was 1.22 percent, China was 1.50 percent, Bangladesh was 1.66 percent, Pakistan was 1.00 percent and Sri Lanka was 0.67 percent.
• Between 1990 and 2021, India’s HDI value increased from 0.434 to 0.633 (based on consistent indicators, methodology and time-series data) — an increase by 45.85 percent.
• Based on consistent indicators, methodology and time-series data, India's HDI values were 0.434 in 1990, 0.491 in 2000, 0.575 in 2010, 0.629 in 2015, 0.645 in 2018, 0.645 in 2019, 0.642 in 2020 and 0.633 in 2021.
• In 2021, India’s life expectancy at birth was 67.2 years, expected years of schooling was 11.9 years, mean years of schooling was 6.7 years and Gross National Income (GNI) per capita was 6,590 in 2017 PPP $ terms.
• Between 1990 and 2021, India’s life expectancy at birth increased by 8.5 years, mean years of schooling increased by 3.9 years, and expected years of schooling grew by 3.9 years. India’s GNI per capita expanded by about 268.16 percent between 1990 and 2021.
• From 2020 HDI value of 0.642, India’s 2021 HDI value reached 0.633 (i.e., it changed by -0.009 points). From 2019 HDI value of 0.645, India’s 2020 HDI value arrived at 0.642 (i.e., it changed by -0.003 points).
• India’s 2021 HDI value of 0.633 is below the average of 0.636 for countries in the medium human development group but above the average of 0.632 for countries in South Asia.
• India’s HDI value for 2021 was 0.633. However, when the value is discounted for inequality, the HDI falls to 0.475, a loss of around 25.0 percent due to inequality in the distribution of the HDI dimension indices. Bangladesh and Pakistan show losses due to inequality to the extent of 23.9 percent and 30.1 percent, respectively. The average loss due to inequality for medium HDI countries was 24.4 percent and for South Asia it was 24.7 percent. The Coefficient of Human Inequality for India was 24.4 percent in 2021.
• The female 2021 HDI value for India was 0.567 in contrast with 0.668 for males.
• In 2021, the value of India's Gender Development Index – ratio of female HDI to male HDI – was 0.849, which is lower than that of China (GDI value 0.984), Nepal (GDI value 0.942), Bhutan (GDI value 0.937), Sri Lanka (GDI value 0.949) and Bangladesh (GDI value 0.898).
• During 2021, India ranked 122nd (GII value 0.490) among 170 countries in terms of Gender Inequality Index (GII) while China ranked 48th (GII value 0.192) out of 170 countries. In comparison, Bangladesh (GII value 0.530) and Pakistan (GII value 0.534) were ranked 131st and 135th, respectively on this index.
• Nearly 13.4 percent of seats were held by Indian women in Parliament in 2021 as compared to 24.9 percent in China.
• During 2011-2021, the female share of employment in senior and middle management for India was 17.7 percent, Bangladesh was 11.5 percent, Sri Lanka was 25.6 percent, Norway was 32.0 percent, United Kingdom was 34.9 percent and the United States was 43.2 percent.
• Military expenditure (i.e. all current and capital expenditures on the armed forces, including peacekeeping forces; defence ministries and other government agencies engaged in defence projects; paramilitary forces, if these are judged to be trained and equipped for military operations; and military space activities) as a proportion of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) for India was 2.9 percent during 2017-2020. The same for China was 1.7 percent, Pakistan was 4.0 percent, Bangladesh was 1.3 percent, Sri Lanka was 1.9 percent, United Kingdom was 2.2 percent and United States was 3.7 percent during 2017-2020.
• In India, 41.8 percent of adult women (25 years and above) reached at least some secondary level of education as compared to 53.8 percent of their male counterparts during the period 2021.
• Female labour force participation rate (15 years and above) in India was 19.2 percent whereas male LFPR was 70.1 percent in 2021. Female LFPR in China was 61.6 percent and male LFPR was 74.3 percent. LFPR is defined as the proportion of the working-age population (ages 15 and older) that engages in the labour market, either by working or actively looking for work, expressed as a percentage of the working-age population.
• For every 100,000 live births, 133.0 women died from pregnancy related causes in 2017; and the adolescent birth rate was 17.2 births per 1,000 women of ages 15-19 years in 2021.
• Lately, environmental issues have also been given thought upon as an imperative measure. So, Planetary pressures-adjusted HDI was introduced, which provides a sense of the possibilities for achieving high HDI values with lower emissions and resource use. Planetary pressures-adjusted HDI (PHDI) value for India was 0.609 in 2021 and for the entire world was 0.667 in the same year.
Poverty and Inequality
• Despite India's significant progress on the multidimensional poverty front in the past decade, the headcount ratio stood at 27.9 percent in 2015-16.
• The multidimensional poverty headcount ratio was 6.0 percentage points higher than the income poverty headcount ratio. This implies that the individuals living above the income poverty line may still suffer deprivations in health, education and/or standard of living.
• The most recent survey data that were publicly available for India’s MPI estimation refer to 2015/2016. In India, 3,81,336.08 thousand people in 2019 were multidimensionally poor while an additional 19.3 percent were classified as vulnerable to multidimensional poverty. The breadth of deprivation (intensity) in India, which is the average deprivation score experienced by people in multidimensional poverty, was 43.9 percent. The Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI), which is the share of the population that is multidimensionally poor, adjusted by the intensity of the deprivations, was 0.123. Bangladesh and Pakistan had MPIs of 0.104 and 0.198, respectively.
• Between 2005/2006 and 2015/2016 the number of multidimensionally poor people in India fell by around 273 million. On average, progress was more intense among the poorest states and the poorest groups.
• In 2015-16, the Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI) for Scheduled Tribes (STs), Scheduled Castes (SCs), Other Backward Classes (OBCs), None of Scheduled Tribe, Scheduled Caste or Other Backward Classes, and No caste/tribe were 0.232, 0.147, 0.118, 0.066 and 0.093, respectively.
• In 2015-16, the multidimensional poverty headcount ratio among Scheduled Tribes (STs), Scheduled Castes (SCs), Other Backward Classes (OBCs), None of ST, SC or OBCs, and No caste/tribe were 50.6 percent, 33.3 percent, 27.2 percent, 15.6 percent, and 21.6 percent, respectively.
• Gini coefficient (official measure of income inequality, which varies between zero and 100, with zero reflecting complete equality and 100 indicating absolute inequality) of India was 35.7 while that of China was 38.2, Bangladesh was 32.4, Pakistan was 29.6, Sri Lanka was 39.3 and Bhutan was 37.4 during 2010-2021.