HDI Overview

HDI Overview

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According to the report entitled Human Development Indices and Indicators: 2018 Statistical Update, which has been prepared by United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) (please click link1, link2 and link3 to access):

• In 2017, India's Human Development Index (HDI) ranking was 130th (HDI value 0.640) among 189 countries, while China's ranking was 86th (HDI value 0.752), Sri Lanka's 76th (HDI value 0.770), Bhutan's 134th (HDI value 0.612), Bangladesh's 136th (HDI value 0.608) and Pakistan's 150th (HDI value 0.562).

• India's HDI ranking has deteriorated from 129th to 130th between 2016 and 2017, whereas China's ranking has remained the same at 86th over the same time span.

• Between 1990 and 2017, the average annual HDI growth for India was 1.51 percent, China was 1.51 percent, Bangladesh was 1.69 percent, Pakistan was 1.23 percent and Sri Lanka was 0.78 percent.

• Between 1990 and 2017, India’s HDI value increased from 0.427 to 0.640 — an increase by 49.9 percent.

• In 2017, India’s life expectancy at birth was 68.8 years, expected years of schooling was 12.3 years, mean years of schooling was 6.4 years and Gross National Income (GNI) per capita was 6,353 in 2011 PPP $ terms.

• India’s 2017 HDI of 0.640 is below the average of 0.645 for countries in the medium human development group, but above the average of 0.638 for countries in South Asia.

• India’s HDI for 2017 was 0.640. However, when the value is discounted for inequality, the HDI falls to 0.468, a loss of 26.8 percent due to inequality in the distribution of the HDI dimension indices. Bangladesh and Pakistan show losses due to inequality of 24.1 percent and 31.0 percent, respectively. The average loss due to inequality for medium HDI countries was 25.1 percent and for South Asia it was 26.1 percent. The Coefficient of Human Inequality for India was 26.3 percent.

• Gini coefficient (official measure of income inequality, which varies between zero and 100, with zero reflecting complete equality and 100 indicating absolute inequality) of India was 35.1 while that of China was 42.2 and Bhutan was 38.8.

• The female 2017 HDI value for India was 0.575 in contrast with 0.683 for males.

• In 2017, the value of India's Gender Development Index – ratio of female HDI to male HDI – was 0.841, which is lesser than that of China (GDI value 0.955), Nepal (GDI value 0.925), Bhutan (GDI value 0.893), Sri Lanka (GDI value 0.935) and Bangladesh (GDI value 0.881).

• During 2017, India ranked 127th (GII value 0.524) in terms of Gender Inequality Index while China ranked 36th (GII value 0.152) out of 189 countries. In comparison, Bangladesh (GII value 0.542) and Pakistan (GII value 0.541) were ranked 134th and 133rd, respectively on this index.

• In 2017, maternal mortality ratio (MMR) in India was 174 while in China it was 27. MMR is the number of maternal deaths during a given time period per 1,00,000 live births during the same time period.

• Nearly 11.6 percent of seats were held by Indian women in Parliament in 2017 as compared to 24.2 percent in China.

• In India 39.0 percent of adult women (25 years and above) reached at least some secondary level of education as compared to 63.5 percent of their male counterparts during the period 2010-17.

• Female labour force participation rate (15 years and above) in India was 27.2 percent whereas male LFPR was 78.8 percent. Female LFPR in China was 61.5 percent and male LFPR was 76.1 percent. LFPR is defined as the number of persons in the labour force per 100 persons (of the population).

• Old age pension recipients as a proportion of statutory pension age population during the period 2006-2016 was 24.1 percent in India, whereas it was 100.0 percent in China.

• The 2018 Update presents HDI values for 189 countries and territories with the most recent data for 2017. Of these countries, 59 are in the very high human development group, 53 in the high, 39 in the medium and only 38 in the low.

• The top five countries in the global HDI rankings are Norway (0.953), Switzerland (0.944), Australia (0.939), Ireland (0.938) and Germany (0.936).

• The bottom five are Burundi (0.417), Chad (0.404), South Sudan (0.388), the Central African Republic (0.367) and Niger (0.354).


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