HDI Overview

HDI Overview

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According to the Human Development Report 2016: Human Development for Everyone prepared by UNDP (please link1, link2 and link3 to access):

• In 2015, India's Human Development Index (HDI) ranking was 131st (HDI value 0.624) among 188 countries, while China's ranking was 90th (HDI value 0.738), Bhutan's 132nd (HDI value 0.607), Bangladesh's 139th (HDI value 0.579) and Pakistan's 147th (HDI value 0.550).

• India's HDI ranking has stayed at 131st between 2014 and 2015, whereas China's ranking has improved from 91st in 2014 to 90th in 2015.

• Between 1990 and 2015, the average annual HDI growth for India was 1.52 percent, China was 1.57 percent, Bangladesh was 1.64 percent, Pakistan was 1.24 percent and Sri Lanka was 0.82 percent.

• Between 1990 and 2015, India’s HDI value increased from 0.428 to 0.624 -- an increase by 45.7 percent. Between 1990 and 2015, India’s life expectancy at birth increased by 10.4 years, mean years of schooling increased by 3.3 years and expected years of schooling increased by 4.1 years. India’s GNI per capita increased by about 223.4 percent between 1990 and 2015.

• India’s 2015 HDI of 0.624 is below the average of 0.631 for countries in the medium human development group and above the average of 0.621 for countries in South Asia.

• India’s HDI for 2015 was 0.624. However, when the value is discounted for inequality, the HDI falls to 0.454, a loss of 27.2 percent due to inequality in the distribution of the HDI dimension indices. Bangladesh and Pakistan show losses due to inequality of 28.9 percent and 30.9 percent, respectively. The average loss due to inequality for medium HDI countries is 25.7 percent and for South Asia it is 27.7 percent. The Human inequality coefficient for India is equal to 26.5 percent.

• During 2015, life expectancy at birth in India was 68.3 years, expected years of schooling was 11.7 years, mean years of schooling was 6.3 years and Gross National Income (GNI) per capita (in terms of 2011 PPP $) was 5,663.

• Gini coefficient (official measure of income inequality, which varies between zero and 100, with zero reflecting complete equality and 100 indicating absolute inequality) in India is 35.1 while in China it is 42.2 and Bhutan is 38.8.

• The female HDI value for India was 0.549 in contrast with 0.671 for males.

• In 2015, the value of India's Gender Development Index was 0.819, which is lesser than that of China (GDI value 0.954), Nepal (GDI value 0.925), Bhutan (GDI value 0.900), Sri Lanka (GDI value 0.934) and Bangladesh (GDI value 0.927).

• During 2015, India ranked 125th (GII value 0.530) in terms of Gender Inequality Index while China ranked 37th (GII value 0.164) out of 159 countries. In comparison, Bangladesh and Pakistan were ranked at 119th and 130th respectively on this index.

• In 2015, maternal mortality ratio (MMR) in India was 174 while in China it was 27. MMR is the number of maternal deaths during a given time period per 1,00,000 live births during the same time period.

• Nearly 12.2 percent of seats were held by Indian women in Parliament in 2014 as compared to 23.6 percent in China. 

• In India 35.3 percent of adult women reached at least some secondary level of education compared to 61.4 percent of their male counterparts.

• Female participation in the labour market was 26.8 percent as compared to 79.1 for men.

• Old age pension recipients as a proportion of statutory pension age population during 2004-2013 was 24.1 percent in India, which was 74.4 percent in China.


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