HDI Overview

HDI Overview

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According to the Human Development Report 2015: Work for Human Development prepared by UNDP (please click here to access):

• In 2014, India's Human Development Index ranking was 130th (HDI value 0.609) among 188 countries, while China's ranking was 90th (HDI value 0.727), Bhutan's 132nd (HDI value 0.605), Bangladesh's 142nd (HDI value 0.570) and Pakistan's 147th (HDI value 0.538). The value of India's HDI was 0.428 in 1990, 0.496 in 2000, 0.586 in 2010, 0.597 in 2011, 0.600 in 2012, 0.604 in 2013 and 0.609 in 2014.

• India's HDI ranking has improved from 131st in 2013 to 130th in 2014. The average annual HDI growth during 1990-2014 was 1.48 percent.

• During 2014, life expectancy at birth in India was 68 years, expected years of schooling was 11.7 years, mean years of schooling was 5.4 years and gross national income (GNI) per capita (in terms of 2011 PPP $) was 5,497.

• During 2005-2013, Gini coefficient (official measure of income inequality, which varies between zero and 100, with zero reflecting complete equality and 100 indicating absolute inequality) in India was 33.6 while in China it was 37.0 and Bhutan it was 38.7.

• The value of India's Gender Development Index was 0.795, which is lesser than that of China (GDI value 0.943), Nepal (GDI value 0.908), Bhutan (GDI value 0.897), Sri Lanka (GDI value 0.948) and Bangladesh (GDI value 0.917).

• During 2014, India ranked 130th (GII value 0.563) in terms of Gender Inequality Index while China ranked 40th (GII value 0.191).

• In 2013, maternal mortality ratio (MMR) in India stood at 190 while in China it was 32. MMR is the number of maternal deaths during a given time period per 100000 live births during the same time period.

• Nearly 12.2 percent of seats were held by Indian women in Parliament in 2014 as compared to 23.6 percent in China. 

• In India, the percentage of population who are satisfied with quality of healthcare, educational quality, and standard of living in 2014 stood at 58 percent, 69 percent and 58 percent, respectively. Only 52 percent of the population feel safe in India. As compared to females (75 percent), more males (79 percent) are satisfied with the freedom of choice. The overall life satisfaction index in India is 4.4 whereas the same in Pakistan is 5.4 (0 means least satisfied and 10 means most satisfied), although the latter has a worse HDI ranking than the former. 

• Nearly, 73 percent Indians have trust in national government, whereas the figure for Pakistan is 43 percent and Sri Lanka is 77 percent during 2014. In case of China, this figure is not reported.

• Almost 67 percent Indians have confidence in judicial system, whereas the figure for Pakistan is 57 percent and Sri Lanka is 74 percent during 2014. In case of China, this figure has not been reported.

• During 2013, percentage of Indian population who feel active and productive has been 47 percent, whereas in China the same is 45 percent. 

• A basic and modest set of social security guarantees through social transfers in cash and in kind can reasonably be provided for all citizens. The cost of setting such a floor with universal pension, basic health care, child benefits and employment schemes would range from about 4 percent of GDP in India to 11 percent of GDP in Burkina Faso.

• The share of old age pension recipients as a percent of statutory pension age population during 2004-2012 was 24.1 percent for India, which was 74.4 percent in China.

• As the National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme began to revamp prior employment programmes, evaluations have found that job creation accelerated from less than 1 billion working days among 20 million households in the act’s first year of operation, 2006/2007, to 2.5 billion among 50 million households in 2010/2011. A simulation estimated that GDP would increase 0.02–0.03 percent, that labour income would rise about 700 million rupees and that the welfare of the poorest households (as measured by Slutski-adjusted consumption relative to initial consumption) would increase up to 8 percent. People belonging to Scheduled Tribes or Scheduled Castes would also benefit.

• In India unpaid care is estimated at 39 percent of GDP while in South Africa it is 15 percent.

• During 2005-2013 the percentage of child labour in the age group 5-14 was 11.8 percent. As a percentage of total employment, during 2000-2010 the percentage of females who worked as domestic workers was 2.2 percent as compared to 0.5 percent of males.

• In 2004/05 India had 4.2 million domestic workers — 1 percent of total employment —about a quarter of them men. More than 70 percent were women working predominantly as housemaids or servants. Some were full-time live-in domestic workers— they might have relatively stable employment and reasonable living conditions but little freedom. Others worked part time, living at home but visiting their employer’s house once or twice a day. They could thus work in more than one household, with somewhat greater choices and exit options.

• During 2005-2013, the number of non-fatal occupational injuries reported was 6,000 and the cases of fatal occupational injuries reported was 2140.

• In India informal work accounted for 46 percent of national non-agricultural output in 2008.

• Globally participation rates for women have fallen slightly in recent years, as have men’s. The drop in the rate for women is due mainly to reductions in India (from 35 percent in 1990 to 27 percent in 2013) and China (from 73 percent in 1990 to 64 percent in 2013).

• In China and India 23 million jobs in clean energy are increasing environmental sustainability.

• In 38 countries, including India, Mexico, Pakistan and Uganda, more than 80 percent of women are unbanked. By contrast, in Japan and the Republic of Korea more than 90 percent of women have bank accounts.

• In India, the percentage of population who are using internet in 2014 has been 18 percent, although mobile phone subscriptions per hundred people has been 74.5. In China, the percentage of population who are using internet in 2014 has been 49.3 percent, and mobile phone subscriptions per hundred people has been 92.3 percent.  

• As of 2013, only 39 percent of women in India were Internet users, compared with 61 percent of men. In China the percentage was 44 percent for women and 56 percent for men, and in Turkey only 44 percent of women were, compared with 64 percent of men.

• Between 2000 and 2010 the number of direct jobs in information and communications technology in India jumped from 284,000 to more than 2 million. In recent years India has maintained a strong position as an offshoring destination for service jobs, but offshoring destinations are becoming increasingly diverse.

• In India farmers and fishers who track weather conditions and compare wholesale prices through mobile phones increased their profits 8 percent, and better access to information resulted in a 4 percent drop in prices for consumers. In India, Kenya and Uganda farmers can call or text hotlines to ask for technical agricultural services.

• If Internet access in developing countries were the same as in developed countries, an estimated $2.2 trillion in GDP could be generated, with more than 140 million new jobs—44 million in Africa and 65 million in India.

• In Andhra Pradesh, India, women run e-Seva centres that provide a wide range of online services. In addition to Internet browsing and access to online auctions, customers can use these centres to pay bills, obtain land and birth certificates, file complaints and grievances, and gain access to tele‑medicine and tele-agriculture.

• A survey of 763 commercial entrepreneurs in India who experienced a transition from commercial to social entrepreneurship between 2003 and 2013 and a quantitative analysis of a final sample of 493 entrepreneurs indicate that 21 percent of the successful entrepreneurs shifted to social change efforts.

• Using cash transfer programmes to provide employment for local young people and poor people. In India and Uganda these programmes have provided resources for funding job searches and for supporting high-quality training and skills development.

• Evidence from India suggests that activities led by sex worker collectives have helped identify 80 percent of trafficked minors and women in West Bengal, showing that sex workers can be allies in assisting such victims.

• Given globalization, the technological revolution and changes in labour markets, support is needed for emerging forms of collective action (such as the Self-Employed Women’s Association in India), innovative organizations for flexible workers (such as the Freelancers Union in the United States) and collective bargaining, including peaceful protests and demonstrations.

• One dimension of population growth is the expansion of a sizeable global middle class, defined as households with daily expenditure of $10–$100 per capita (in purchasing power parity terms). That global middle class is expected to be 4.9 billion—nearly 57 percent of the global population—in 2030, with 3.2 billion in Asia and the Pacific, mostly in China and India. Consumption by the middle class in the 10 countries with the largest middle-class population (Brazil, China, France, Germany, India, Indonesia, Japan, Mexico, the Russian Federation and the United States) is forecast to be $38 trillion in 2030.

• There are four extension workers (those who provide agricultural extension services) per 1,000 family farms in Brazil and Ethiopia, but less than one per 1,000 in India. Their reach among female farmers tends to be especially poor—a concern because women typically have a substantial role in agriculture in developing countries but have less access to market information, inputs and finances.

• In India results of an industry survey suggested that off-grid solar photovoltaic technologies systems generated about 90 direct (involved in the actual manufacture of solar panels) and indirect (through employment with dealers, manufacture of products such as solar lanterns, home-lighting kits and the like) jobs per megawatt.


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