The 71st round National Sample Survey on “Social Consumption: Health” was conducted during January to June 2014. The information in the survey was collected from 36,480 households in rural areas and 29,452 households in urban areas during the 71st round.
• The Proportion (per 1000) of Ailing Persons (PAP), measured as the number of living persons reporting ailments (per 1000 persons), was 89 persons in rural India and 118 persons in urban India.
• Inclination towards allopathy treatment was prevalent (around 90% in both the sectors). Only 5 to 7 percent usage of ‘other’ including AYUSH (Ayurveda, Yoga or Naturopathy Unani, Siddha and homoeopathy) was reported both in rural and urban area. Moreover, un-treated spell was higher in rural (both for male and female) than urban areas.
• Private doctors were the most important single source of treatment in both the sectors (Rural & Urban). More than 70 percent (72 per cent in the rural areas and 79 per cent in the urban areas) spells of ailment were treated in the private sector (consisting of private doctors, nursing homes, private hospitals, charitable institutions, etc.).
B. Hospitalized treatment
• Medical treatment of an ailing person as an in-patient in any medical institution having provision for treating the sick as in-patients, was considered as hospitalised treatment. In the urban population, 4.4 percent persons were hospitalised at some time during a reference period of 365 days. The proportion of persons hospitalised in the rural areas was lower (3.5 percent).
• It is observed that in rural India, 42 percent hospitalised treatment was carried out in public hospital and rest 58 percent in private hospital. For the urban India, the corresponding figures were 32 percent and 68 percent. It may be noted in this context that households (or persons within households) were segregated in sector (rural/urban) by their place of domicile, and not by the place of treatment.
• Preference towards allopathy treatment was observed in cases of hospitalised treatment as well.
C. Cost of treatment - as in-patient and other
• Average medical expenditure per hospitalisation case: Higher amount was spent for treatment per hospitalised case by people in the private hospitals (Rs. 25850) than in the public hospitals (Rs. 6120). The highest expenditure was recorded for treatment of Cancer (Rs. 56712) followed by that for Cardio-vascular diseases (Rs. 31647).
• Average medical expenditure per non-hospitalisation case was Rs. 509 in rural India and Rs. 639 in urban India.
• As much as 86 percent of rural population and 82 percent of urban population were still not covered under any scheme of health expenditure support. Government, however, was able to bring about 12 percent urban and 13 percent rural population under health protection coverage through Rastriya Swasthya Bima Yojana (RSBY) or similar plan. Only 12 percent households of the 5th quintile class (Usual Monthly Per Capita Consumer Expenditure) of urban area had some arrangement of medical insurance from private provider.
D. Incidence of childbirth, Expenditure on institutional childbirth
• In rural area 9.6% women (age 15-49) were pregnant at any time during the reference period of 365 days; for urban this proportion was 6.8%. Evidence of interrelation of place of childbirth with level of living is noted both in rural and urban areas. In the rural areas, about 20% of the childbirths were at home or any other place other than the hospitals. The same for urban areas was 10.5%. Among the institutional childbirth, 55.5% took place in public hospital and 24% in private hospital in rural area. In urban area, however, the corresponding figures were 42% and 47.5% respectively.
• An average of Rs. 5544 was spent per childbirth (as inpatient) in rural area and Rs. 11685 in urban area. The rural population spent, on an average, Rs. 1587 for the same in a public sector hospital and Rs. 14778 for one in a private sector hospital. The corresponding figures for urban India were Rs. 2117 and Rs. 20328.