Neonatal Mortality Rate
• In 2010, the neonatal mortality rate (Probability of dying in the first month of life, expressed per 1,000 live births) at national level is at 33 and ranges from 19 in urban areas to 36 in rural areas. Among bigger states, neo-natal mortality rate is highest in Madhya Pradesh (44) and lowest in Kerala (7).
• The rural–urban gap in neo natal mortality rate was highest in Andhra Pradesh and Assam (23 points), followed by Rajasthan (22 points). The rural –urban gap in neo natal mortality rate lowest in Kerala (3 points), followed by Tamil Nadu (6 points).
• Factors which affect fetal and neonatal deaths are primarily endogenous, while those which affect post neonatal deaths are primarily exogenous. The endogenous factors are related to the formation of the foetus in the womb and are therefore, mainly biological in nature. Among the biological factors affecting fetal and neonatal infant mortality rates the important ones are the age of the mother, birth order, period of spacing between births, prematurity, weight at birth, mothers health.
Infant Mortality Rate
• Infant Mortality Rate (Probability of dying between birth and exactly 1 year of age, expressed per 1,000 live births) has declined for males from 78 in 1990 to 46 in 2010 and for females the decline was from 81 to 49 during this period.
• Infant Mortality Rate for the country as a whole declined from 66 in 2001 to 47 in 2010. With the present improved trend due to sharp fall during 2008-09, the national level estimate of infant mortality rate is likely to be 44 against the MDG target of 27 in 2015.
• Infant Mortality Rate has declined in urban areas from 50 in 1990 to 31 in 2010, whereas in rural areas Infant Mortality Rate has declined from 86 to 51 during the same period.
• Infant Mortality Rate in 2010, was lowest in Goa (10) followed by Kerala (13) and Manipur (14). The States of Madhya Pradesh (62), Orissa (61), Uttar Pradesh (61), Assam (58), Meghalaya (55), Rajasthan (55), Chhattisgarh (51), Bihar (48) and Haryana (48) reported infant mortality rate above the national average (47).
• Among infants, the main causes of death are: Certain Conditions Originating in the Perinatal Period (67.2%), Certain infectious and Parasitic diseases (8.3%), Diseases of the Respiratory System (7.7%), Congenial Malformations, Deformations & chromosomal Abnormalities (3.3%), Other causes (10.6%).
Under Five Mortality Rate
• Under Five Mortality Rate (Probability of dying between birth and exactly 5 years of age, expressed per 1,000 live births) in India for the year 2010, stands at 59 and it varies from 66 in rural areas to 38 in Urban areas.
• Under Five Mortality Rate stood at 64 for females whereas it is 55 for males in 2010.
• Under Five Mortality Rate varies from lowest in Kerala (15), followed by 27 in Tamil Nadu to alarmingly high level in Assam (83), followed by Madhya Pradesh (82), Uttar Pradesh (79) and Odisha (78).
• Given to reduce Under Five Mortality Rate to 42 per thousand live births by 2015, India tends to reach near to 52 by that year missing the target by 10 percentage points.
• Among children aged 0 to 4 years, the main causes of death are: Certain infectious and Parasitic Diseases (23.1%), Diseases of the Respiratory System (16.1%), Diseases of the Nervous System (12.1%), Diseases of the Circulatory System (7.9%), Injury, Poisoning etc (0.9%), Other major causes (33.9 %).
• At national level, 61% of the children aged 12-23 months have received full immunization in 2009. The coverage of immunization was higher in urban areas (67.4%) as compared to that in the rural areas (58.5%).
• Nearly 8% Indian children did not receive even a single vaccine in 2009. Nearly 62% of the male children aged 12-23 months have received full immunization, while among the females it was nearly 60%.
• 76.6 percent of children aged 12-23 months received full immunization coverage whose mothers had 12 or more years of education whereas 45.3 percent of children whose mothers had no education got full immunization.
• About 75.5% of children of less than one year belonging to the highest wealth index group are fully immunized while only 47.3% from the lowest quintile are fully immunized.
• The full immunization coverage of children age 12-23 months is highest in Goa (87.9%), followed by Sikkim (85.3%), Punjab (83.6%), and Kerala (81.5%). The full immunization coverage is lowest in Arunachal Pradesh (24.8%).