Swachh Bharat In The City -Himanshu Gupta
-The Indian Express
Urban areas require a different approach to end open defecation.
The Swachh Bharat Mission is being executed by two different ministries — the Ministry of Drinking Water and Sanitation for rural areas and the Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs for urban areas. In the rural areas, the major challenge was to change the mindset of the populace so that they would start using household toilets rather than defecate in open areas. As majority of the households did not have toilets in their homes, the main component of Swachh Bharat Mission (Grameen) was to construct household latrines and to focus on information, education and communication (IEC) activities. The need for a dedicated sewerage network is less in rural areas as the toilets are connected with in-house soak pits. Domestic waste in rural areas is also managed in a much better manner as it is segregated at the household level and a majority of it is used in the fields. Thus, improving the cleanliness level in a rural area is much less complex than in an urban set up.
An urban area faces two major challenges — disposal of solid waste and sewerage/liquid waste. Disposal of solid waste has three key components. First, waste collection, then transfer of the waste, and lastly, proper disposal at the landfill site. The task of waste collection and its transfer to the landfill site requires both manpower as well as an efficient transportation system. The segregation of waste can either be at the source or at the landfill. Segregation at source is more economical. At the landfill, it is done by either using high-end segregation plants or manual conveyors.
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The Indian Express, 13 November, 2019, https://indianexpress.com/article/opinion/columns/swach-bharat-mission-narendra-modi-bjp-sanitation-6116693/