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According to the Report of the Expert Committee on Tribal Health: Tribal Health in India -- Bridging the Gap and a Roadmap for the Future (2018), Ministry of Health and Family Welfare and Ministry of Tribal Affairs, please click here and here to access:

• The estimates published in the Lancet (2016) show that life expectancy at birth for the ST population in the country was 63.9 years, as against 67 years for the general population. The life expectancy for tribal people is likely to be an overestimate because child deaths are under-reported among the STs more often than in general population

• The prevalence of underweight among ST children has reduced from 54.5 percent in NFHS-3 (2005-06) to 42 percent in NFHS-4 (2015-16). However, as compared to other social groups, tribal children continue to be the most undernourished. The prevalence of underweight is almost one and half times in tribal children than in 'other' castes  

• The Rapid Survey of Children (2013-14) shows that the highest percentage of children with low birth weight (less than 2.5 kg) was found among the tribal population

• Only about 25 percent pregnant and lactating ST women and 29-32 percent ST children had adequate intakes of both protein and calories

• On an average, intake of cereals and millets decreased by about 50 gm/ CU/ day between second (1988-90) and the third National Nutrition Monitoring Bureau (NNMB) surveys (2008-09) in tribal areas. The average daily intake of proteins decreased by about 3 gm/ CU/ day and vitamin A by about 117 μgm/ CU/ day. The average intake of energy decreased by nearly 150 Kcal/ CU/ day

• Sex ratio among the Scheduled Tribes (STs) is 990 compared to sex ratio of 938 among the non-STs

• Child sex ratio among the STs is 957 as compared to 914 among the non-STs

• 40.6 percent of ST population lived below the poverty line as against 20.5 percent of the non-tribal population in 2009-10

• Based on the Tendulkar methodology, it was found by the Planning Commission that the proportion of ST population living below the poverty line in rural areas was 47.4 percent in 2009-10 as compared to 33.8 percent of overall population (rural)

• Based on the Tendulkar methodology, it was found by the Planning Commission that the proportion of ST population living below the poverty line in urban areas was 30.4 percent in 2009-10 as compared to 20.9 percent of the overall population (urban)

• 65 percent of tribal women in the 15-49 years age group suffer from anemia

• The rate of institutional delivery is the lowest among tribal women (70.1 percent).

• As per the National Family Health Survey-4 (NFHS-4), the estimated Infant Mortality Rate (IMR) for the ST population was 44.4 per 1,000 live births of children under one year of age (for the non-STs it was 32.1) and for the 1-4 years ST children the child mortality rate was 13.4 (for the non-STs it was 6.6) 

• As per NFHS-4, the Under-five Mortality Rate (U5MR) was 57.2 per 1,000 live births (for the non-STs it was 38.5)

• As much as 50 percent of mortality due to malaria occur among the STs

• The estimated prevalence of Pulmonary Tuberculosis among the tribal community is significantly higher than the rest of the country-- 703 against 256 per 100,000

• Though the proportion of ST population in the country was 8.6 percent, the proportion of new leprosy cases among the STs was found to be 18.5 percent, thus, revealing a disproportionate burden of leprosy among the tribal population 

• One out of every four tribal adults suffer from hypertension

• Sickle cell anemia is prevalent 1 in 86 births among tribal communities, in Central India

• Almost 72 percent of the tribal men (as compared to 56 percent non-ST men) in the 15-54 years age group were using tobacco and 50 percent STs consumed alcohol

• Nearly 50 percent of the outpatient visits by tribal people were to public hospitals and more than two third of the indoor hospitalization of tribal population was in government health services

• Since tribal areas are surrounded by forests, animal bites from snakes, dogs and scorpions are common. The country has the highest snakebite mortality in the world -- between 45,000 to 50,000 every year, i.e. about 125 persons per day   

• Over 104 million tribal people live in India

• 705 tribes are present in India under Scheduled Tribes

• 8.6 percent of the country’s population is tribal

• At present, there are 75 tribal groups identified and categorized as Particularly Vulnerable Tribal Groups

• Based on 2001 census it could be said that there are 19 Particularly Vulnerable Tribal Groups (PVTGs) with less than 1,000 population, four PVTGs with a population of more than 50,000 and eight PVTGs with a population above 1,00,000 population (Singh et al, 2014)

• The availability of funds under the Tribal Sub-Plan during the last 3 years shows that on an average per capita availability of fund per year was nearly Rs. 8,000. During the current year, it is around Rs. 10,000. However, often the percentage expenditure shown under TSP is a mere accounting exercise. This is because various ministries show under TSP, the regular services that would be in any case have to provide in tribal areas. The additional expenditure in these areas, which is the mandate of the TSP, remains unstated. There is no consolidated data available on TSP expenditure, at the state and central level 

• Currently the unavailability of financing data on tribal health stems from poor monitoring of allocation and utilization of funds in tribal areas. The present system of fund flows for tribal health is complex. Several ministries and state departments provide funds to these regions/ populations through different mechanisms. A mechanism to consolidate the pool of funds for health for the ST populations/ tribal regions could be proposed at the district level under the aegis of the district panchayat (or tribal autonomous council where they exist, and the district health society)



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