Women spend most of their daily time in unpaid domestic and care work, shows the latest Time Use Survey data

Women spend most of their daily time in unpaid domestic and care work, shows the latest Time Use Survey data

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published Published on Oct 18, 2020   modified Modified on Oct 19, 2020

 

Among other things, one of the reasons (given by some economists) behind low labour force participation rate (LFPR) of women vis-à-vis men in the country is that more of young girls are educating themselves, causing an improvement in the secondary and tertiary enrolment rates. It means that more of Indian women are staying out of the labour force in order to continue their education – secondary education and / or college & above education.

Experts, however, argue that due to the scarcity of suitable jobs i.e. regular salaried jobs that are flexible and can be safely accessed by women, female LFPR in India is lagging behind that of neighbouring countries like Nepal, Bangladesh or Sri Lanka. Please consult the chart below. In order to know more about this issue, please read our past news alert entitled It's time to give priority to women's work participation.

Although an indicator like LFPR shows the proportion of working-age population who are either employed or are looking for work or available for work i.e. unemployed, it fails to take into account the proportion of working-age population who are performing unpaid work in the households or in the community. Feminist economists have long argued that unpaid work or chores done by women in the households are often considered as duties and not counted as 'work'. Hence, much of the work performed by females is 'invisible' in nature. Instead of LFPR, the indicators used in the Time Use Survey – 2019 can shed light to understand the work (paid as well as unpaid) done by both men and women.

It can be observed from table-1 that for the 15-29 years age-group male LFPR is over 3.5 times that of female LFPR in both 2017-18 and 2018-19. Similarly, for the 15-59 years age-group male LFPR is more than three times that of female LFPR in both the years under discussion. One can see that the male LFPR is higher for the age-group 15-59 years in comparison to the age-group 15-29 years in both 2017-18 and 2018-19. Likewise, the female LFPR is higher for the age-group 15-59 years vis-à-vis the age-group 15-29 years.  

Although female LFPR for the age-group 15-29 years has fallen marginally between 2017-18 and 2018-19, for the age-group 15-59 years female LFPR has increased between the two years under consideration. Please check table-1.

Table 1: Labour force participation rate (LFPR) (in per cent) according to usual status (ps+ss) in PLFS 2017-18 and PLFS 2018-19 for age-groups 15-29 years and 15-59 years

Source: Annual Report on the Periodic Labour Force Survey 2017-18 and Annual Report on the Periodic Labour Force Survey 2018-19
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It is important for us to turn our attention to what the recently released Time Use Survey conveys. Table-2 shows that the proportion of women aged 15-29 years engaged in paid activities was 12.7 percent, whereas the proportion of women aged 15-59 years participating in paid activities was 20.6 percent at the national level. In contrast to women, the proportion of men aged 15-29 years engaged in paid activities was far higher i.e. 51.0 percent, whereas the proportion of men aged 15-59 years participating in paid activities was 68.5 percent at the national level.

The proportion of females aged 15-29 years engaged in unpaid activities was 87.5 percent, whereas the proportion of females aged 15-59 years participating in unpaid activities was 93.8 percent at the national level.

The proportion of males aged 15-29 years engaged in unpaid activities was 39.4 percent, whereas the proportion of males aged 15-59 years participating in unpaid activities was 48.6 percent at the national level.

Table 2: Percentage of persons of different age groups participating in a day in unpaid activities, paid activities and residual other activities (in percent)

Source: Time Use Survey, January to December 2019, National Statistical Office (NSO)
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Women spend a considerable larger amount of their daily time in unpaid work mostly related to household chores and care of other family members in comparison to men (please refer to the discussion on table-5 later). Table-3 shows that the average time (in minutes) spent by women (i.e. 378 minutes) aged 15-29 years in unpaid activities is nearly 2.8 times that of men (i.e. 137 minutes) from the same age-group at the national level. The average time (in minutes) spent by women aged (i.e. 388 minutes) 15-59 years in unpaid activities is over two and half times that of men (i.e. 151 minutes) from the same age-cohort.

At the national level, the average time (in minutes) spent by males (i.e. 445 minutes) aged 15-29 years in paid activities is roughly 1.3 times that of females (i.e. 333 minutes) from the same age-bracket. The same trend pertaining to paid activities almost holds true for males and females aged 15-59 years.

In urban areas, the average time (in minutes) spent by women (i.e. 333 minutes) aged 15-29 years in unpaid activities is around 3.2 times that of men (i.e. 105 minutes) from the same age-group. In rural areas, the average time (in minutes) spent by women (i.e. 394 minutes) aged 15-29 years in unpaid activities (i.e. 147 minutes) is almost 2.7 times that of men from the same age-cohort.

In urban areas, the average time (in minutes) spent by females (i.e. 357 minutes) aged 15-59 years in unpaid activities is approximately 3.3 times that of males (i.e. 108 minutes) from the same age-group. In rural areas, the average time (in minutes) spent by females (i.e. 400 minutes) aged 15-59 years in unpaid activities is almost 2.4 times that of males (i.e. 166 minutes) from the same age-bracket.

Table 3: Average time (in minutes) spent in a day per participant of different age groups in unpaid activities, paid activities and residual other activities

Source: Time Use Survey, January to December 2019, National Statistical Office (NSO)
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Please note that unpaid activities in the Time Use in India - 2019 report include: (a) care for children, sick, elderly, differently-abled persons in own households; (b) production of other services for own consumption; (c) production of goods for own consumption; (d) voluntary work for production of goods in households; (e) voluntary work for production of services in households; (f) voluntary work for production of goods in market/non-market units; (g) voluntary work for production of services in market/non-market units; (h) unpaid trainee work for production of goods; (i) unpaid trainee work for production of services; (j) other unpaid work for production of goods; and (k) other unpaid work for production of services.

Paid activities considered in the Time Use in India - 2019 report are (a) self-employment for production of goods; (b) self-employment for production of services; (c) regular wage/ salary for production of goods; (d) regular wage/ salary for production of services; (e) casual labour for production of goods; and (f) casual labour: for production of services.

Activities like 'learning', 'socializing and communication, community participation and religious practice', 'Culture, leisure, mass-media and sports practices' and 'Self-care and maintenance' fall in the category of residual other activities, as per the National Statistical Office (NSO). It is evident from table-4 that on an average men (80.5 percent) aged 15-29 years spent a higher proportion of their total time in a day in residual other activities as compared to women (74.1 percent) from the same age-cohort.

On an average men (15.8 percent) aged 15-29 years spent a higher proportion of their total time in a day in paid activities as compared to women (2.9 percent) from the same age-bracket. In contrast to that, on average men (3.8 percent) aged 15-29 years spent a lower proportion of their total time in a day in unpaid activities as compared to women (22.9 percent) from the same age-group.  

On average males (73.8 percent) aged 15-59 years spent a higher proportion of their total time in a day in residual other activities as compared to females (70.0 percent) from the same age-cohort.

On average males (21.2 percent) aged 15-59 years spent a higher proportion of their total time in a day in paid activities as compared to females (4.7 percent) from the same age-bracket. However, on average males (5.1 percent) aged 15-59 years spent a lower proportion of their total time in a day in unpaid activities as compared to females (25.3 percent) from the same age-group.  

Table 4: Percentage share of unpaid activities, paid activities and residual other activities of the total time in a day per person of different age-groups

Source: Time Use Survey, January to December 2019, National Statistical Office (NSO)
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In table-5, the average amount of time spent (in minutes) in a day in different activities per participant of age-groups 15-29 years, 15-59 years and 60 years and above in those activities are presented.  

Within unpaid work, on average men aged 15-29 years spent 7.4 percent of their daily time in production of goods for own final use, whereas women from same age-cohort spent only 4.1 percent of their daily time in this activity at the national level. However, on average men aged 15-59 years spent 8.4 percent of their daily time in production of goods for own final use, whereas women from same age-bracket spent only 4.8 percent of their daily time in the same activity.

When it comes to unpaid domestic services for household members and unpaid caregiving services for household members, on average males aged 15-29 years spent only 7.1 percent of their daily time in them while females from the same age-group spent 18.7 percent (2.6 times more in comparison to males) of their daily time in these two activities. The same trend (in terms of percentage share of daily time allocated for the two unpaid activities) holds for men and women aged 15-59 years.

Table 5: Average time (in minutes) spent in a day per participant of different age-groups

Source: Time Use Survey, January to December 2019, National Statistical Office (NSO)

Note: The estimates have been calculated considering all the activities in a time slot
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On average males aged 15-29 years spent 18.2 percent of their daily time in learning, whereas females from the same age-bracket spent 17.9 percent of their daily time in this activity. Likewise, on average males aged 15-59 years spent only 17.8 percent of their daily time in learning, whereas females from the same age-group spent 17.1 percent of their daily time in this activity.

Please note that the average time spent per participant in activity "A" is equal to the total time spent by the participants in activity "A" divided by the total number of persons participating in activity "A".

Reliability of data

In their article entitled Time use in India (published in The Hindu Business Line dated 5th October, 2020), Jayati Ghosh and CP Chandrasekhar have stated that the recall method used for the latest Time Use Survey, which asked interviewees about their activities during the last 24 hours, may be an inferior and potentially misleading method. It is often difficult for respondents "to remember and then aggregate the time involved in activities, especially when several activities are combined (as is the case with much home-based work)." Although the application of time use diaries by respondents can provide a more accurate data, people with lower level of literacy may face challenges in such a survey method. Direct observation by a researcher could be a better method but it tends to be more expensive and time-consuming. Such kind of method may "be subject to distortion as those surveyed become conscious of the external gaze." In the recent Time Use Survey by NSO, for a significant proportion of respondents, the information about a person's last 24-hour activities is not given directly by the concerned person itself but is based on the recalled information provided by some other household members. Thus, the data of the Time Use Survey may be less accurate.

Despite the flaws of the latest Time Use Survey, the report provides evidence about the gender dimension to time use and time poverty in India, say Ghosh and Chandrasekhar. In a separate essay, Ghosh says that "most people who are time-poor are also income-poor and suffer from other (often multiple) deprivations."

For women's economic empowerment, simply raising the volume of female employment in formal jobs is not enough since that may cause double burden upon women. It is because working women are expected to accomplish their household obligations too. So, the policy focus should be on quality, recognition and remuneration of women' work and the conducive environment that facilitates their labour force participation, which includes alternative arrangements for household work and childcare.


KEY FINDINGS OF TIME USE SURVEY - 2019

Time Use Survey (TUS) provides a framework for measuring time dispositions by the population on different activities. It is an important source of information about the activities that are performed by the population and the time duration for which such activities are performed. One distinguishing feature of Time Use Survey from other household surveys is that it can capture time disposition on different aspects of human activities, be it paid, unpaid or other activities with such details which is not possible in other surveys.

The primary objective of Time Use Survey (TUS) is to measure participation of men and women in paid and unpaid activities. TUS is an important source of information on the time spent in unpaid caregiving activities, volunteer work, unpaid domestic service producing activities of the household members. It also provides information on time spent on learning, socializing, leisure activities, self-care activities, etc., by the household members.

National Statistical Office (NSO) conducted the first Time Use Survey in India during January–December 2019. The survey measures the participation rate and time spent on paid activities, care activities, unpaid activities, etc.

This survey covered 1,38,799 households (rural: 82,897 and urban: 55,902). Information on time use was collected from each member of age 6 years and above of the selected households. This survey enumerated 4,47,250 persons of age 6 years and above (rural: 2,73,195 and urban: 1,74,055).

In this survey data on time use was collected through personal interview method. Information on time use was collected covering a period of 24 hours starting from 4:00 A.M. on the day before the date of interview to 4:00 A.M. on the day of interview.

The results have been presented here considering all the activities in the time slots instead of considering only the major activity. However the Report on Time Use in India-2019 also contains estimates considering only the major activities in the time slots. The results are presented for persons of age 6 years and above.

The participation rate in a day in any activity is defined as the percentage of persons performing that activity during the 24 hours of the reference period.

The average time spent per participant in activity "A" is equal to the total time spent by the participants in activity "A" divided by the total number of persons participating in activity "A".

The average time spent per person in activity "A" is equal to the total time spent by the participants in activity "A" divided by the total number of persons.

The key findings of the report entitled Time Use in India-2019, January-December 2019 (released in September 2020) by National Statistical Office, Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation, are as follows (please click here and here to access):

A. Participation in employment and related activities and time spent per participant of age 6 years and above in these activities in a day

• The participation rate in rural areas for males is 56.1 percent and for females is 19.2 percent in 'employment and related activities'. The participation rate in rural areas as a whole is 37.9 percent.  

• The participation rate in urban areas for males is 59.8 percent and for females is 16.7 percent in 'employment and related activities'. The participation rate in urban areas as a whole is 38.9 percent.  

• The participation rate in the country is 38.2 percent in calendar year 2019.

• The average time spent in a day per participant in rural areas for males is 434 minutes and for females is 317 minutes in 'employment and related activities'. The average time spent in a day per participant in rural areas as a whole in 'employment and related activities' is 404 minutes.

• The average time spent in a day per participant in urban areas for males is 514 minutes and for females is 375 minutes in 'employment and related activities'. The average time spent in a day per participant in urban areas as a whole in 'employment and related activities' is 485 minutes.

• The average time spent in a day per participant in the country is 429 minutes in 'employment and related activities'.

• Employment and related activities include: (a) Employment in corporations, government and non-profit institutions; (b) Employment in household enterprises to produce goods; (c) Employment in household enterprises to provide services; (d) Ancillary activities and breaks related to employment; (e) Training and studies in relation to employment; (f) Seeking employment; (g) Setting up a business; and (h) Travelling and commuting for employment.

B. Participation in production of goods for own final use and time spent per participant of age 6 years and above in these activities in a day

• The participation rate in rural areas for males is 19.1 percent and for females is 25.0 percent in 'production of goods for own final use'. The participation rate in rural areas as a whole is 22.0 percent.  

• The participation rate in urban areas for males is 3.4 percent and for females is 8.3 percent in 'production of goods for own final use'. The participation rate in urban areas as a whole is 5.8 percent.  

• The participation rate in the country is 17.1 percent in the calendar year 2019.

• The average time spent in a day per participant in rural areas for males is 203 minutes and for females is 123 minutes in 'production of goods for own final use'. The average time spent in a day per participant in rural areas as a whole in 'production of goods for own final use' is 158 minutes.

• The average time spent in a day per participant in urban areas for males is 134 minutes and for females is 64 minutes in 'production of goods for own final use'. The average time spent in a day per participant in urban areas as a whole in ‘production of goods for own final use' is 85 minutes.

• The average time spent in a day per participant in the country is 151 minutes in 'production of goods for own final use'.

• Production of goods for own final use include: (a) Agriculture, forestry, fishing and mining for own final use; (b) Making and processing goods for own final use; (c) Construction activities for own final use; and (d) Travelling, moving, transporting or accompanying goods or persons related to own-use production of goods.  

C. Participation in unpaid domestic services for household members and time spent per participant of age 6 years and above in these activities in a day

• The participation rate in rural areas for males is 27.7 percent and for females is 82.1 percent in 'unpaid domestic services for household members'. The participation rate in rural areas as a whole is 54.6 percent.  

• The participation rate in urban areas for males is 22.6 percent and for females is 79.2 percent in 'unpaid domestic services for household members'. The participation rate in urban areas as a whole is 50.1 percent.  

• The participation rate in the country is 53.2 percent in the calendar year 2019.

• The average time spent in a day per participant in rural areas for males is 98 minutes and for females is 301 minutes in 'unpaid domestic services for household members'. The average time spent in a day per participant in rural areas as a whole in 'unpaid domestic services for household members' is 249 minutes.

• The average time spent in a day per participant in urban areas for males is 94 minutes and for females is 293 minutes in 'unpaid domestic services for household members'. The average time spent in a day per participant in urban areas as a whole in 'unpaid domestic services for household members' is 247 minutes.

• The average time spent in a day per participant in the country is 248 minutes in 'unpaid domestic services for household members'.

• Unpaid domestic services for household members include: (a) Food and meals management and preparation; (b) Cleaning and maintaining of own dwelling and surroundings; (c) Do-it-yourself decoration, maintenance and repair; (d) Care and maintenance of textiles and footwear; (e) Household management for own final use; (f) Pet care; (g) Shopping for own household members; (h) Travelling, moving, transporting or accompanying goods or persons related to unpaid domestic services for household members; and (i) Other unpaid domestic services for household members.

D. Participation in unpaid caregiving services for household members and time spent per participant of age 6 years and above in these activities in a day

• The participation rate in rural areas for males is 14.4 percent and for females is 28.2 percent in 'unpaid caregiving services for household members'. The participation rate in rural areas as a whole is 21.2 percent.  

• The participation rate in urban areas for males is 13.2 percent and for females is 26.3 percent in 'unpaid caregiving services for household members'. The participation rate in urban areas as a whole is 19.5 percent.  

• The participation rate in the country is 20.7 percent in the calendar year 2019.

• The average time spent in a day per participant in rural areas for males is 77 minutes and for females is 132 minutes in 'unpaid caregiving services for household members'. The average time spent in a day per participant in rural areas as a whole in 'unpaid caregiving services for household members' is 113 minutes.

• The average time spent in a day per participant in urban areas for males is 75 minutes and for females is 138 minutes in 'unpaid caregiving services for household members'. The average time spent in a day per participant in urban areas as a whole in 'unpaid caregiving services for household members' is 116 minutes.

• The average time spent in a day per participant in the country is 114 minutes in 'unpaid caregiving services for household members'.

• Unpaid caregiving services for household members include: (a) Childcare and instruction; (b) Care for dependent adults; (c) Help to non-dependent adult household members; (d) Travelling and accompanying goods or persons related to unpaid caregiving services for household members; and (e) Other activities related to unpaid caregiving services for household members.

E. Participation in unpaid volunteer, trainee and other unpaid work and time spent per participant of age 6 years and above in these activities in a day

• The participation rate in rural areas for males is 2.8 percent and for females is 2.0 percent in 'unpaid volunteer, trainee and other unpaid work'. The participation rate in rural areas as a whole is 2.4 percent.  

• The participation rate in urban areas for males is 2.5 percent and for females is 2.2 percent in 'unpaid volunteer, trainee and other unpaid work'. The participation rate in urban areas as a whole is 2.3 percent.  

• The participation rate in the country is 2.4 percent in the calendar year 2019.

• The average time spent in a day per participant in rural areas for males is 99 minutes and for females is 98 minutes in 'unpaid volunteer, trainee and other unpaid work'. The average time spent in a day per participant in rural areas as a whole in 'unpaid volunteer, trainee and other unpaid work' is 98 minutes.

• The average time spent in a day per participant in urban areas for males is 111 minutes and for females is 101 minutes in 'unpaid volunteer, trainee and other unpaid work'. The average time spent in a day per participant in urban areas as a whole in 'unpaid volunteer, trainee and other unpaid work' is 106 minutes.

• The average time spent in a day per participant in the country is 101 minutes in 'unpaid volunteer, trainee and other unpaid work'.

• Unpaid volunteer, trainee and other unpaid work includes: (a) Unpaid direct volunteering for other households; (b) Unpaid community- and organization-based volunteering; (c) Unpaid trainee work and related activities; (d) Travelling time related to unpaid volunteer, trainee and other unpaid work; and (e) Other unpaid work activities.

F. Participation in socializing and communication, community participation and religious practice and time spent per participant of age 6 years and above in these activities in a day

• The participation rate in rural areas for males is 91.7 percent and for females is 91.2 percent in 'socializing and communication, community participation and religious practice'. The participation rate in rural areas as a whole is 91.5 percent.  

• The participation rate in urban areas for males is 90.6 percent and for females is 91.4 percent in 'socializing and communication, community participation and religious practice'. The participation rate in urban areas as a whole is 91.0 percent.  

• The participation rate in the country is 91.3 percent in the calendar year 2019.

• The average time spent in a day per participant in rural areas for males is 151 minutes and for females is 139 minutes in 'socializing and communication, community participation and religious practice'. The average time spent in a day per participant in rural areas as a whole in 'socializing and communication, community participation and religious practice' is 145 minutes.

• The average time spent in a day per participant in urban areas for males is 138 minutes and for females is also 138 minutes in 'socializing and communication, community participation and religious practice'. The average time spent in a day per participant in urban areas as a whole in 'socializing and communication, community participation and religious practice' is 138 minutes.

• The average time spent in a day per participant in the country is 143 minutes in 'socializing and communication, community participation and religious practice'.

• Socializing and communication, community participation and religious practice includes: (a) Socializing and communication; (b) Participating in community cultural/social events; (c) Involvement in civic and related responsibilities; (d) Religious practices; (e) Travelling time related to socializing and communication, community participation and religious practice; and (f) Other activities related to socializing and communication, community participation and religious practice.

G. Participation in culture, leisure, mass-media and sports practices and time spent per participant of age 6 years and above in these activities in a day

• The participation rate in rural areas for males is 87.0 percent and for females is 82.2 percent in 'culture, leisure, mass-media and sports practices'. The participation rate in rural areas as a whole is 84.6 percent.  

• The participation rate in urban areas for males is 92.1 percent and for females is 92.7 percent in 'culture, leisure, mass-media and sports practices'. The participation rate in urban areas as a whole is 92.4 percent.  

• The participation rate in the country is 86.9 percent in the calendar year 2019.

• The average time spent in a day per participant in rural areas for males is 162 minutes and for females is 157 minutes in 'culture, leisure, mass-media and sports practices'. The average time spent in a day per participant in rural areas as a whole in 'culture, leisure, mass-media and sports practices' is 159 minutes.

• The average time spent in a day per participant in urban areas for males is 171 minutes and for females is also 181 minutes in 'culture, leisure, mass-media and sports practices'. The average time spent in a day per participant in urban areas as a whole in 'culture, leisure, mass-media and sports practices' is 176 minutes.

• The average time spent in a day per participant in the country is 165 minutes in 'culture, leisure, mass-media and sports practices'.

• Culture, leisure, mass-media and sports practices include: (a) Attending/visiting cultural, entertainment and sports events/venues; (b) Cultural participation, hobbies, games and other pastime activities; (c) Sports participation and exercise and related activities; (d) Mass media use; (e) Activities associated with reflecting, resting, relaxing; (f) Travelling time related to culture, leisure, mass-media and sports practices; and (g) Other activities related to culture, leisure, mass-media and sports practices.

H. Participation in learning and time spent per participant of age 6-14 years in learning activities in a day

• The participation rate in rural areas for males is 86.4 percent and for females is 85.4 percent in 'learning'. The participation rate in rural areas as a whole is 85.9 percent.  

• The participation rate in urban areas for males is 85.1 percent and for females is 86.4 percent in 'learning'. The participation rate in urban areas as a whole is 85.7 percent.  

• The participation rate in the country is 85.9 percent in the calendar year 2019.

• The average time spent in a day per participant in rural areas for males is 427 minutes and for females is 427 minutes in 'learning'. The average time spent in a day per participant in rural areas as a whole in 'learning' is 427 minutes.

• The average time spent in a day per participant in urban areas for males is 441 minutes and for females is also 437 minutes in 'learning'. The average time spent in a day per participant in urban areas as a whole in 'learning' is 439 minutes.

• The average time spent in a day per participant in the country is 430 minutes in 'learning'.

I. Participation in learning and time spent per participant of age 15-29 years in learning activities in a day

• The participation rate in rural areas for males is 31.2 percent and for females is 22.6 percent in 'learning'. The participation rate in rural areas as a whole is 26.9 percent.  

• The participation rate in urban areas for males is 36.6 percent and for females is 32.0 percent in 'learning'. The participation rate in urban areas as a whole is 34.4 percent.  

• The participation rate in the country is 29.2 percent in the calendar year 2019.

• The average time spent in a day per participant in rural areas for males is 425 minutes and for females is 423 minutes in 'learning'. The average time spent in a day per participant in rural areas as a whole in 'learning' is 424 minutes.

• The average time spent in a day per participant in urban areas for males is 448 minutes and for females is also 429 minutes in 'learning'. The average time spent in a day per participant in urban areas as a whole in 'learning' is 440 minutes.

• The average time spent in a day per participant in the country is 430 minutes in 'learning'.

• Learning includes: (a) Formal education; (b) Homework, being tutored, course review, research and activities related to formal education; (c) Additional study, non-formal education and courses; (d) Travelling time related to learning; and (e) Other activities related to learning.  

J. Participation in unpaid and paid activities and time spent per participant of age 6 years and above in these activities in a day

• The participation rate in unpaid activities for rural males is 47.8 percent and rural females is 85.0 percent.  

• The participation rate in paid activities for rural males is 53.4 percent and rural females is 17.7 percent.

• The participation rate in unpaid activities for urban males is 35.1 percent and urban females is 81.7 percent.  

• The participation rate in paid activities for urban males is 58.1 percent and urban females is 15.5 percent.

• The participation rate in unpaid activities for the country as a whole is 63.6 percent.

• The participation rate in paid activities for the country as a whole is 36.2 percent.

• The average time spent in a day per participant in unpaid activities for rural males is 167 minutes and for rural females is 373 minutes.

• The average time spent in a day per participant in paid activities for rural males is 415 minutes and for rural females is 313 minutes.

• The average time spent in a day per participant in unpaid activities for urban males is 110 minutes and for urban females is 337 minutes.

• The average time spent in a day per participant in paid activities for urban males is 486 minutes and for urban females is 367 minutes.

• The average time spent in a day per participant in unpaid activities is 289 minutes.

• The average time spent in a day per participant in paid activities is 413 minutes.

K. Time spent in unpaid and paid activities per person age 6 years and above in a day irrespective of whether they participated in these activities or not

• The average time spent per person in a day in unpaid activities for rural males is 80 minutes and rural females is 317 minutes.  

• The average time spent per person in a day in paid activities for rural males is 222 minutes and rural females is 55 minutes.

• The average time spent per person in a day in unpaid activities for urban males is 39 minutes and urban females is 276 minutes.  

• The average time spent per person in a day in paid activities for urban males is 282 minutes and urban females is 57 minutes.

• The percentage share of unpaid activities in the total time spent in paid and unpaid activities in a day for rural males is 26.5 percent and for rural females is 85.2 percent.

• The percentage share of paid activities in the total time spent in paid and unpaid activities in a day for rural males is 73.5 percent and for rural females is 14.8 percent.

• The percentage share of unpaid activities in the total time spent in paid and unpaid activities in a day for urban males is 12.1 percent and for urban females is 82.9 percent.

• The percentage share of paid activities in the total time spent in paid and unpaid activities in a day for urban males is 87.9 percent and for urban females is 17.1 percent.

References:

Press note on NSS Report: Time Use in India-2019, please click here to read more

Time Use Survey, January to December 2019, National Statistical Office (NSO), Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation (MoSPI), please click here to read more

Annual Report on Periodic Labour Force Survey, July 2018-June 2019 (released in June 2020), National Statistical Office, Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation, please click here to read more

Annual Report on Periodic Labour Force Survey, July 2017-June 2018 (released in May 2019), National Statistical Office, Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation, please click here to read more

Definition: Labour Force Participation Rate (LFPR), ILO, please click here to read more

Unfolding unpaid domestic work in India: women’s constraints, choices, and career -Pushpendra Singh and Falguni Pattanaik, Palgrave Communications volume 6, Article number: 111 (2020), please click here to read more

News alert: It's time to give priority to women's work participation, Inclusive Media for Change, Published on Jun 29, 2017, please click here to read more

Time use in India -CP Chandrasekhar and Jayati Ghosh, The Hindu Business Line, 5 October, 2020, please click here to access

Time poverty is making Indian women lose more money than ever -Jayati Ghosh, ThePrint.in, 3 October, 2020, please click here to read more

 

Image Courtesy: Inclusive Media for Change/ Shambhu Ghatak



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