Water and Sanitation

Water and Sanitation

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• According to NSS 76th Round, the major source of drinking water of the household was hand pump in the rural areas and piped water into dwelling in the urban areas. About 42.9 percent of the households in the rural areas used hand pump as the principal source of drinking water and about 40.9 percent of the households in the urban areas used piped water into dwelling as the principal source of drinking water *12


• As of December 2017, only 44 percent of rural habitations and 85 percent of Government schools and anganwadis could be provided access to  safe drinking water, only 18 percent of rural population were provided potable drinking water by piped water supply and only 17 percent of rural households were provided household connections. The overall coverage of rural habitations increased only by 8 percent at 40 litre per capita per day (lpcd)  and 5.5 percent at 55 lpcd after incurring expenditure of Rs. 81,168 crore during the period 2012-17 *11


• As on 24th May, 2018, nearly 60.83 percent of total villages (viz. 6,02,912) in the country were ODF. The proportion of villages, which were found to be ODF, is the lowest in Goa and Lakshadweep (both zero percent), followed by Tripura (2.21 percent), Bihar (12.15 percent), Odisha (20.42 percent) and Uttar Pradesh (24.65 percent) *10

• Sanitation coverage as on 24th May, 2018 in rural areas of Bihar was 55.84 percent, Assam was 85.83 percent, Goa was 76.22 percent, Jammu & Kashmir was 81.52 percent,  Jharkhand was 76.99 percent, Karnataka was 87.89 percent, Madhya Pradesh was 88.05 percent, Manipur was 83.56 percent, Nagaland was 91.73 percent, Odisha was 55.0 percent, Puducherry was 63.06 percent, Tamil Nadu was 98.72 percent, Uttar Pradesh was 68.83 percent, Tripura was 74.77 percent, Telangana was 84.13 percent and West Bengal was 93.48 percent *10


• Out of the 3,788 villages surveyed by NSSO, 13.1 percent villages in India were found to have community toilets. Out of the sample villages, at the national level, 1.7 percent villages were found to be having the community toilets but not using them. 82.1 percent of all the community toilets available in the villages were being used for defecation or washing purpose *9

• While access and coverage of latrine facilities is as high as 95 percent in Kerala, 91 percent in Mizoram and 89 percent in Manipur, less than 25 percent of households have access to latrine facilities within the household premises in Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand and Odisha *8

• As per Census 2011, Bihar (77), Chhattisgarh (75), Jharkhand (78) and Odisha (78) are states with more than 75 percent households having no latrine facilities at all *8

• Between 1990 and 2012, India increased access to improved drinking water source for 534 million people. Still there are 92 million people in India without access to an improved drinking water source in 2012 *7
• Between 1990 and 2012, India increased access to improved sanitation for 291 million people. Still there are 792 million people in India without access to an improved sanitation facility in 2012 *7
• Among rural households, 85.8 percent had sufficient drinking water and for urban India the corresponding figure was 89.6 percent. 59.4 percent and 8.8 percent households in rural India and urban India respectively had no latrine facilities *6
• The percentage of households who got drinking water facilities within premises was 46.1 percent in rural India and 76.8 percent in urban India. About 62.3 percent of rural households and 16.7 percent of urban households did not have any bathroom facility *6
• India accounts for 59 per cent of the 1.1 billion people in the world who practice open defecation *5
• India has 97 million people without access to improved sources of drinking water, second only to China *5
• According to a report by Water Aid (2011), the population in India without access to water is 147.3 million *4
• Indian Government spent 0.57 percent of GDP on water and sanitation in 2008, which fell to 0.54 percent in 2009 and further to 0.45 percent in 2010 *4
• India provided over 200 million people with access to sanitation between 1995 and 2008 *4
• Some 1.6 million children die each year from diarrhea and other gastrointestinal diseases for which contaminated drinking water is a leading cause *3
• Nearly 65 per cent of rural households had no latrine facility *2
• Nearly 18 per cent of rural households had all three facilities (drinking water within premises, latrine and electricity) *2
• About 66 million population is at risk due to excess fluoride in 200 districts of 17 states *1
• Arsenic contamination is widespread in West Bengal and it is now seen in Bihar, eastern UP, and Assam *1


12. NSS Report No. 584: Drinking Water, Sanitation, Hygiene and Housing Condition in India, NSS 76th Round, July 2018 to December 2018 (released on 23rd November 2019), please click here to access


11. CAG's Report No.15 of 2018 - Performance Audit on National Rural Drinking Water Programme in the Ministry of Drinking Water and Sanitation, please click here to access 


10. 51st Report of Standing Committee on Rural Development related to the status of Swachh Bharat Mission-Gramin in various states (published in July, 2018), please click here to access


9. Swachhta Status Report 2016, Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation, (please click here to access)


8. Economic Survey 2015-16, Ministry of Finance (Volume 1 , Volume 2


7. Progress on drinking water and sanitation, Joint Monitoring Programme update 2014 (released in May 2014), please click here to download

6. Key Indicators of Drinking Water, Sanitation, Hygiene and Housing Condition in India, NSS 69th round, July 2012 to December 2012 (click here to read more) 


5. WHO/ UNICEF Joint monitoring report 2012: Progress on drinking water and sanitation, please click here to access


4. Off-track, off-target-Why investment in water, sanitation and hygiene is not reaching those who need it most (2011), Water Aid, please click here to access    


3. Providing Safe Water: Evidence from Randomized Evaluations by Amrita Ahuja, Michael Kremer and Alix Peterson Zwane, April, 2010


2. Housing Condition and Amenities in India, 2008-09, National Sample Survey


1. 11th Five Year Plan, Planning Commission, Government of India



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